Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Letter of motivation to a Prospective Employer Essay

Letter of motivation to a Prospective Employer - undertake ExampleI did the following courses during my studies for the Bachelors of Science Degree in Criminal justice and Administration Contemporary issues in Criminal umpire, Criminology, Policing Theory and Practice, Criminal Law, Interpersonal Communication, Institutional and Communication, Institutional and friendship Corrections, Criminal Procedure, Criminal Court Systems, Criminal Organizations, Juvenile Justice Systems and Process, Ethics in Criminal Justice, ethnic Diversity in Criminal Justice, Research Methods in Criminal Justice, Organizational Behaviour and Management, Criminal Justice Administration, Foundations of Criminal Justice, Criminal Justice Policy Analysis, Managing Criminal Justice Personnel, Futures of Criminal Justice, and Interdisciplinary Capstone Course. all these courses are specially designed to equip the student with the knowledge and skills required in dealing with managerial as well as leadershi p aspects that are related to the operations of the criminal justice agencies. The courses endure a strong foundation of notional knowledge that can be transformed into real conduct practice in the profession of criminal justice. It is my strong conviction that the knowledge I have gained in the field of Criminal justice have greatly enhanced my managerial and administrative skills that are well related to law enforcement, the criminal courts and corrections. My degree program is designed to offer the students with a strong punctuate in criminal justice principles, theories as well as concepts that are related to justice administration. any the courses I have taken are designed to fulfil the core aspects of criminal justice as portrayed in the domains of courts, police services as well as corrections. The programme offers a planetary perspective to the realm of criminal justice and it fulfils non-homogeneous management functions that can improve the operations of various man agerial departments in related agencies that deal with criminal justice. The courses I took will greatly help me in my profession since I am better positioned to approach any situation with self determination as a result of the valuable theoretical knowledge I gained in each course and I can transform it into real practice. Basically, the BSCJA programme is designed to fulfil various goals and these were fulfilled both in theory and in practice through practical lessons by my tutors who are serving members of the justice system. My professors enlighten from a practical stand point and this curriculum is designed to equip the student with the much necessary practical experience in this particular field where he is given the opportunity to transform the theoretical knowledge gained into real practice. As such, I believe I have the following competencies that can positively contribute to the overall performance of the organization as a whole. I have good conference skills and can co mmunicate both verbally and written at all levels. The valuable knowledge I have gained in this particular discipline have developed my style of systematic, creative and logical thinking. I can diligently approach any given scenario and I can find solutions to

Monday, April 29, 2019

Finance Theories Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Finance Theories - Essay casefulFosberg (2010, p.2) notes that the crisis began due to default on debt instruments and subprime mortgage loans supported by those loan types. However, it was not until 2007 that companies began realizing that the default on subprime mortgages was likely to cause a crisis on the monetary sectors of the economy. This follows the discovery by Bear Stearns that realized that almost of its assets, which were held by the subprime hedge funds, were slowly becoming valueless (mizzenmast 2008, p.15). However, the devastating effect of the subprime mortgage defaults on some other markets were felt a year later in February 2008 following the subsidence of the auction rate security measure market. Fosberg (2010, p.2) notes that buyers failure to bid for the securities during a public auction resulted in an end to these securities market.However, the first major financial market collapses in March 2008 following the liquidation of Bear Stearns after going ban krupt. In the identical year in September, another financial institution called Lehman Brothers also went bankrupt signaling a crisis. This prompted administration intervention with the aim of forestalling further effects of the financial crisis on the financial market, which resulted in the passage of TARP Act (Fosberg 2010, p.2). The act soon became law in October 2008 as noted by Mizen (2008, p.15). However, the law did not help much in preventing the crisis from continuing biting the financial markets and institutions. In fact, galore(postnominal) countries still suffer from the effects of this crisis which no sign of full recovery anytime soon. Some of the countries still ugly from the effects of this crisis include the U.K., the U.S. Greece and Turkey just to name but a few (Brigham and Ehrhardt 2002, p.12). In addition, the financial crisis also affected the issuance of securities in the market.What was also evident is that the financial crisis of the 2000s created a rec ession, which financial centering experts expect to have also affected the

Sunday, April 28, 2019

The Gap Inc. as a major retailer of wearing apparel and accessories Case Study

The Gap Inc. as a major retailer of wearing apparel and accessories - trip Study ExampleGap is in the appearance industry and must continually make out on the basis of brand desirability. Brand name equity is Gaps greatest asset. However, the recent economic downturn has had, and entrust continue to get under ones skin, a negative impact on Gaps ability to generate revenue. Gap is a sumptuousness apparel item and would be one of the first to be reduced in a consumers budget. In 2007, Gap closed several Forth and Towne stores after test marketing did not meet with customer acceptance (We Are Gap Inc. ). In addition, protectionist attitudes in the US, and the coming election, may alter the trade agreements that have benefited Gaps manufacturing and distribution strategies.The industry environment is best analyzed by using Michael Porters five forces. New entrants into the fashion apparel industry are faced with the ease of entry, and the difficulty of marketing. Globalization has made it easier for international brands to compete via the Internet or established distribution networks. According to Formisano, As to a greater extent countries develop around the world, more competitors are created, which fuels more competition for market share (58).

Saturday, April 27, 2019

International Human Rights Treaties Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

International Human Rights Treaties - Essay ExampleHathaway (588) states that in that location argon two main UN-chartered based enforcements. The two are declarations and conventions. The extent to which declarations are effective sufficiency to realize compliance is limited. This is because declarations depend on the willingness of the host country to enforce certain laws. In addition, declarations are not legally binding. However, declarations have major political implications in terms of enforcement and the willingness to comply by the members specify by the said declarations. Under the international law on the other hand, conventions are legally binding. gibe to Neu mayer (925), it is common knowledge that international human rights are generally under-enforced. The reason given for this under-enforcement is due to the personality of enforcement of such treaties, which is mainly done through transitional legal processes. The international legal processes in this context re fer to the collaboration amid various legal institutions across the world. Kinney (1457) also shows the distinct difference between obedience and enforcement. Obedience does not involve any consequences other than the fact that disobedience of the law may have indirect political, economic, and social implications. However, enforcement is subject to punitive measures in terms of violations. This implies that laws that are enforced attract legal measures and implications at the behest of the international community. The situation is often complicated when some nations are not slice of any international community.

Friday, April 26, 2019

H1N1 and Canadian Health Care Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

H1N1 and Canadian Health superintend - Research Paper ExampleReason being was young and middle-aged adults are or soly away of their ho business deallings which can easily acquire the virus.The virus is said to be contagious and can easily be transmitted as a regular seasonal flu. The process could include when an infected person coughs or sneezes and germs enter the nose, eyes or throat of another person. Public counters and doorknobs could be potentially dangerous as the germs rest on different surfaces.It resembles same sign and symptoms of an ordinary influenza but in almost cases can develop nausea, vomiting, sore throat, mild conjunctivitis and diarrhea. Initial symptoms could be mild but if left(a) untreated could lead to pneumonia or respiratory failure. In children, they may present nausea, vomiting or group AB pain while infected infants may present a sepsis-like syndrome.Since H1N1 resembles the strain of common influenza virus, the diagnosis can be considered in a ny patient with flu-like symptoms. A PCR Test to detect H1N1 virus is straight being used to check infection of swine flu. Treatment approach is conservative through relieving of symptoms by use of over-the-counter drugs but for those late stages a use of antiviral drugs is the option.Recently, as the virus spreads around the world, most government would require vaccines and different television stations are now advertising common hand washing with use of soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer to reduce transmission of infection.H1N1 entering CanadaIt was showtime cited that H1N1 virus first appeared in Canada as per Public Health Agency of Canada reported. Though, the Canadian Government has evaluate the arrival of the second wave of the illness last October 2009 since there was an increased in H1N1 activity in several parts of the country this would mean that there is an increased in number of Canadians infected by the virus. Though, the Canadian Government is in co ntinuous work with international partners in learning more intimately the virus and to prepare in case there would be some changes to the virus nature and if there would be another wave infecting the nation. As it rapidly affecting most Canadians, there is still no rise suggesting the strain becomes stronger.Death Toll and Canadian Government Stand on the illnessAs we already knew the process of virus transmission. Canadian Government as a firm stand on how we could rule out the disease from spreading and the possibility of infecting others.DeathsProvince / TerritoryNew Deaths reported(from November 24, 2009 to November 26, 2009, 11h00 EDT)CumulativeBritish capital of South Carolina236Alberta651Saskatchewan112Manitoba09Ontario1695Quebec583New Brunswick06Nova Scotia05Prince Edward Island00Newfoundland and Labrador08Yukon02Northwest Territories01Nunavut01Total30309Source The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)The Public Health Agency of Canada has taken some go to follow to avoi d the infection through the following simple steps1. Use of Alcohol-based sanitizer or frequent

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Solar cooling technology in football stadiums Dissertation

Solar cooling applied science in football stadiums - Dissertation ExampleIt is this hint that brought about the cooling technology utilizing solar cypher which could be applied in large electrical capacity buildings i. e football stadiums. According to Solar power energy generation, (2010) solar energy will be the main source of power generation in the wrestle of the century. Aside the fact that the use of solar energy could be by far cheaper than the use of fuels or biofuels in certain technological operations, for the very fact that sunlight is not paid for, we must likewise take note that strength of the source is strong as the sun emanates over 15 one thousand million degrees Kelvin or about 27 million degrees Fahrenheit degrees of heat per minute ( NASA Cosmicopia,2009 ). But it is renowned to observe that the application or working process of this technology could be very complicated and require accuracy in other to function properly and adequately. Now Qater has chose n to utilize the cooling technology by way of solar energy to generate cool air in its large capacity stadiums in the 2022 FIFA World cup. The first of the kind to be hosted in the middle east. This is the biggest challenge of the century for a small country like Qater who atomic number 18 determined to conquer the summer heat and make the standard pressure chilling and comfortable for people all over the world who will be at the tournament. approximately of such people are Europeans who are used to cold and cool weather. At the same term Qatar has decided to reduce cost by employing this technology. But I must forewarn before we turn in depth into this research work, that if the subject matter is not understood properly, if the rudiments and nitty gritties of the technology are not distinctly explained, if the step by step process of the workability of the technology are not distinctly defined, if the dimensions of operations as projected by Qater sports development ministry are not accurately modified and so on this could lead to an unnecessary waste of taxpayers money and could be the most fatal mistake made by a Nation in recent times. That is why a lot of time will be taken to explain the step by step process of the technology from various perspectives and works of governing before i draw my conclusion and master plan. Thus the work will be split into three broad classs. The first classify will focus on the overall technology, the second part will focus on its application in Qater, in this part the following will be clearly explained though with stronger and more professional terminologies 1- Solar Harvesting. 2- Storage. 3- Heat Conversion. 4- Cold Storage. 5- Chilled Air Delivery. The third part will show by picturesque diagrams, how the newly modified concepts will be pragmatic in its application. At the end of the research, the following will be accurately and professionally achieved an improvement in the formula concept with product desi gn specification (PDS), accurate calculation such as the energy require for the stadium etc. Lastly this research will put forward the following in twain a descriptory and an analytic form for easy application by the end user i.e. Focus on low energy concepts to create thermal comfort. Apply innovative, green, highly efficient cooling technology. Produce electrical energy by integrated photovoltaic systems. The Objectives of the study which are as follows will be clearly and precisely achieved - Introducing the new cooling technology. - Applying the cooling system into the outdoor stadiums. -

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Is global climate change man-made Research Paper

Is global climate reposition man-made - look for Paper ExampleAs such the human activities on the environment have direct and collateral impact on climate change. The aerosols and nursery gases lead to change due to the alteration of the solar ray and the infrared radiation, which form a significant component of the energy balance of the earth (IPCC 34). mode change, from its very roots, is a human driven propensity. It began back in the 1750 when the industrial era began. Industrial revolution was an era that saw factories emit substantial amount of gases to the atmosphere thereby resulting to the change (Sondergard 23). The revolution came with a heat influence that substantially changed the climate. The impact of the human activities during this exceeded the known natural changes such as volcanic eruptions and solar changes. Climate scientists agree that the trends in the global climate change are mainly caused by the natural process of man on the land (IPCC 56). The human beings constantly expand the green house effect and the trend has been so for a very long time in history. The warming happens when the atmosphere traps heat that radiates from the atmosphere.Climate change happens when some gases in the atmosphere block heat from the earth from escaping. These gases are emitted mainly as a result of the human activity on the surface of the earth. One of these major gases is the carbon (IV) oxide. fit in to NAS (34), the human activities that emit such gases are potential producers of climate change. When gases remain in the atmosphere for a long time, they fail to respond to the changes in temperature whether physical or chemical and force the climate change to occur.There are those gases that are the potential producers of global warming. One of those gases is water vapor. This is the most abundant greenhouse gas, but it also plays the significant role of being feedback to the changes in climate. As explains Sondergard (102), as the atmosphere wa rms, the

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Final Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 12

Final - Essay ExampleIn particular, Extremely loud and Incredibly Close by Jonathan Safran Foer appears to be the fusion of text and visual aids. As it is a literary work, text plays the leading role in rendering the ideas, while visual aids perform the financial support role and enhance the story telling by means of specifying and illustrating the narration.In accordance with McCloud, text and pictures have-to doe with in several ways in a piece. Despite the fact that McCloud discusses mostly graphic novels, or comics, his ideas can be applied to the novel under consideration as well. Based on McClouds work titled Understanding Comics The Invisible Art, there ar two types of text and moving-picture show combines in Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close, such as word specific combination and additive combination. The first type of text and photo combination presupposes that pictures mostly illustrate what is discussed in the novel. angiotensin converting enzyme of the best examp les of the use of photos in terms of cases is Oskars visit to the art supply store where the male child sees his fathers name (actually his grandfathers name) written on the writing pads. The photos of writing pads are placed in the novel to illustrate that most people write the name of the color of the frame theyre writing with and back up the managers words (Foer). Apart from that, these photos reveal no information. The second example is Oskars scrap book Stuff That Happened to Me. For the boy, the book is of great importance for it bears valuable memories. Put exactly in this part of the novel, however, the scrap book can be regarded as the illustration of what is happening in Oskars head at a particular moment in fork out at night. Stuff That Happened to Me is the montage of photos (keys, Oskars fingerprints, Hamlet holding Yoricks skull etc.) which reflects the welter of confused ideas and the boys state of perplexity at that very moment. The

Monday, April 22, 2019

Ethics of Merci Killing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ethical motive of Merci Killing - Es express ExamplePeople argue that if legalized the choice of their life will be given up to other people who may use it unethically to kill those whom they have a bias against. another(prenominal) reason is regarding the religious aspect of life. Some religions see life as a gift from paragon and do not give a man the authority to take life at his stimulate will.The word Euthanasia means a good death,beneficial death or a reward death. Euthanasia can be practiced in a number of ways virtuoso can be defined as passive Euthanasia which is carried out to hasten the death of a person. For example by removing a persevering from life support or in some cases by stopping food and water or any sort of medicine which is helping to keep the patient alive.The controversy surrounding Euthanasia can be broadly categorized into two arguments, one in favor of Euthanasia and the other against it. We will briefly shed light on both of these arguments.Pro-lifer s right away agree that anyone should have the right to refuse medical treatment if he believes the side effects, whether pain or the burden of being tied to some machine or whatever is worse than the disease. This includes two types of people, bingle People who, perhaps because of a serious illness or perhaps for reasons unrelated to their illness, are exceedingly depressed and say they want to die and Two People who are suffering from illnesses that make them unable(p) to communicate. This includes people who are in a coma, or paralyzed, or simply so sick and shoddy that they cannot make meaningful sounds or other communication. The pro-euthanasia people say that such patients quality of life is so low that they are better off dead and they should be killed.People who argue against euthanasia say that if legalized it can become an issue of cost containment and government saving rather than providing long term disturbance to serious patients or those who do not have health in surance.

Socrates and his trial Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Socrates and his runnel - Research Paper ExampleIn addition, more knowledge about the teachings and animation of Socrates are procurable with the memoirs of Xenophon (Aristophanes, Irvine and Plato 14). Historical records describe Socrates as an individual who neglected his personal affairs in companionship to spend much of his time discussing a number of concepts, which include piety, justice as well as virtue. He taught his fellow citizens at all places whenever they congregated around him to hear his teachings. These citizens usually gathered around him in order to seek wisdom about how to conduct them justly and right. They wanted this kind of knowledge in order to shape and guide the moral as well as the intellectual improvement of their community, Athens. Socrates use a powerful method in dialogue known as the Socratic Dialogue or Dialect in order to draw forth knowledge and understanding from his students. He did this through his pastime of a series of questions posed a t the students as well as examining the implications of the answers that they gave for the questions (Aristophanes, Reeve and Xenophon 45). Socrates valued holiness so much that he equated virtue with the knowledge of the true self of an individual. He grappled that nobody in his or her clear and pure mind committed a wrong act knowingly or intentionally. In addition, Socrates looked down upon the soul. He claimed that the soul was the seat of both moral character as well as waking consciousness. He also argued that the universe was purposively mind-ordered. As such, he gravely criticized the religious as well as the political institutions of the Athenians and the Sophists. These criticisms made him so many an(prenominal) enemies that Aristophanes burlesqued his position in the society. As such, the authorities feeling offended by the criticisms from Socrates decided to fix him by putting him through trails and charging him for corrupting the tidy sum (Danzig 23). These enemies made true their threats and held Socrates accountable for the teachings he gave his followers about justice, virtue and morality within the society. In 399 B.C, Socrates go about trial with charges of corrupting the morals o the youth within Athenian, as well as facing accusations for religious heresies. Most people believe in the modern times that the arrest of Socrates cauline primarily from the influence that he held over Critias as well as Alcibiades, who in an earlier spatial relation betrayed Athens in one way or another. He faced conviction from his charges without many pleas to argue out his innocence. He resisted all the attempts and efforts made to rescue or save his life from impending death. He got a death sentence, whereby he was to drink a cup of poisoned hemlock, and he did this willingly (Johnson). All these accounts of the life and trial of Socrates are only available through the stories made by Plato in the Phaedo, Crito and Apology. Consequently, the death of S ocrates through drinking of poisonous hemlock marks one of the most famous usages of the poison in primal history. Socrates, whom most philosophers, as well as, the Greek descendants consider him as the father of Greek philosophy, faced trial for impiety and corruption of the youths of Athens with his teachings and criticisms. He became a controversial figure in the urban center of Athens and as such created many enemies through the hatred that he aroused in many of the people he criticized their way of life or traditions, such as the religious factions and the political dispensations. He therefore created many

Sunday, April 21, 2019

News Story - Emirates vs Canada Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

News Story - Emirates vs Canada - Article ExampleEmirates executives sop up argued that such an expansion could potentially create 2,800 jobs across Canada and generate up to $480m in additional economic activity(The Economist). This proclamation did convince the premiers of Alberta and British Columbia to certain extend. However, Air Canada being the barely airway flying to S stunnedh Asia demanded the increase in UAE airline would only benefit UAE and will hurt Canada financially. The Canadians pointed out that the UAE airlines want to carry passengers to Canada from India and Pakistan using Dubai as hub. The author comments that the gulf airline has proved to be triple-crown even during the recession and captured the travel market throughout Asia, Europe and America. According to some officials the treatment of Dubai brass towards airline industry is not up to the mark. Most governments around the world treat aviation as a pariah, choking its growth with costly, misdirected regulation, instead of adopting policies that recognize its considerable socio-economic benefits and support its sustainable growth(The Economist).Moreover, the valuate policy also creates hindrance to the growth and development of airline industry. Critical analysis of the dispute surrounded by Canadian and U.A.E airlines A) Main reason for dispute The dispute betwixt Canadian and U.A.E airline companies has created big problems between the relationships of these countries. The main thing for despise between these countries could have been the immediate action of the U.A.E. government to close have the air base. U.A.E., being the fastest going airline industry had landing agreements with Canada for the prospects of growing their market piece of land as airline industry. The main reason for the dispute between these two nations started with the UAE government asking for more than landing rights from their Canadian counterparts. According to the landing agreement signed in 1999 , the Emirati airline was allowed to fly only 6 times a week .But, during 2007, UAE airline officials demanded an increase in the escape cock traffic to hike up the sales potential. This betoken by UAE has undoubtedly irritated the Canadian officials nevertheless they did reconsider the request delivered by the UAE officials. They have understood that by giving extra landing rights they can very fountainhead be benefited in expanding their travel market. This negotiation between the two countries broi take for many years without refinement in any agreeable outcome. However, the problem aroused in 2010, when the Canadian force approached U.A.E to share their military air base to service its operation for Afghanistan mission. U.A.E took this opportunity to show the vengeance by giving a non -renewable three- month lease to the Canadian military. Change in the attitude of Canadian authorities In the November of 2010 it was account that at that place was change in the minds of Ca nadian official as to the expansion of landing rights to the U.A.E. Canada was ready to can more landing slots to U.A.E in areas like Calgary and Vancouver considering the business prospect it could bring to their country. Nonetheless, U.A.E found out that there was a decrease in the capacity offered by Canada in air passenger travel which led to their offence. If one look at the whole situation, U.A.E. was right in demanding additional landing rights as this was effective to both the countries in expanding their travel market. Since U.A.E had a considerable amount of Canadian citizens, an addition in the flight

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Confucian Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Confucian Ethics - Essay ExampleConfucius, the founder of Confucianism believed on a golden rule based on the belief that people should do unto others, what they would like to be done unto them His ethical code was based on humanity, love, and chasteity. Rather than being based on religious beliefs, Confucianism is based on a system of social and ethical principles.In East Asia, Confucianism touches on alone aspects of life (Slote and De Vos 5). These include the family, education, society, and government. Although Confucianism has most of the times been grouped together with other religions such as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Judaism, it is not a systemised religion. According to Slote and De Vos, a viable way of life for so many and for so long, Confucianism has sometimes been viewed as a philosophy and sometimes as a religion (5). ... Confucius stressed that despite the fact that strict observation of traditional rituals is important, a devoted spirit a nd a sincere heart argon even more important. He found no value in performing rituals, while a person was inhuman or lacked humanness. According to him, taking a keen look at persons actions, motives, and preferences, then his or her real character is revealed and cannot be concealed. Confucian ethics revolve near associations among human beings. The philosophy mainly revolves around family relationships, especially around the relationships between parents and children, between elder and junior brothers, and between husband and wife (Yao 32-33). The Confucian belief is based on the grounds that fulfilment or responsibilities in these relationships should be done with a complete and genuine heart. However, despite revolving around the family, the Confucian moral philosophy is not restrained within the family, but also the society. Emphasis is placed on the family because it is the bum of peace around the world and order in the society. According to Yao (33), the Confucian logic i s that the family is the basic building block of the human community and that harmonious family relationships will inevitably lead to a harmonious society and a peaceful state. The virtues of leaders within their families are very vital and determine how they rule organisations and a nation, since the basis of their actions, motives, and preferences is found within their family units. This consequently has an effect on a whole nation. A convention who has intense love and devotion for his relatives, parents, friends, wife, and children is humane to the common people in the society and treats them with honour and consideration. such kinds of rulers are

Friday, April 19, 2019

Research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 1

Research - Essay ExampleThe detrimental effects of the continuous industrialization and modernization of the corporate world had turned the trend of the organizations and companies from the objectives of financial artwork solely towards expansion of aims and priorities in terms of responsibilities thus including the welf ar of the environments and surroundings including the adjacent communities and other issues cerebrate to ethics and behaviours of the employees and the members of the company or organization. The CSR then can be defined on the basis of talent attention to three objectives that includes the profitability in the financial aspect, the social responsibility and the environmental issues and concerns (Catalyst Consortium, 2002).In the try out that had been undertaken, the main objectives and aims include the explore, analysis and insertion of data related to corporate social responsibility. The said concerns are achieved through the gathering of researches that had b een conducted by different academic groups and authors and comparing results and methods that had been applied. Through the said procedures the areas that are cover and studied can be generally viewed. In turn then, the main output of the research conducted is the presentation of the view on the said issue at a glance. The review of the published papers in CSR can be considered to present an access that can introduce the data in the said scope of discipline.In the review conducted, three published papers on CSR that had been presented after the year 2000 had been included and analyse on the basis of different points. The research design characteristics are points that are considered important that had been presented in the research works that had been studied. The summary of the characteristics of the papers is presented in tabulated form (Appendix 1-4).The main issue that is discussed in the articles under report card is the effects of CSR with other

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Contemporary Marketing Research - John Lewis bucking the trend on the Essay

Contemporary Marketing Research - John Lewis bucking the trend on the UK gritty Street - Essay ExampleThis study would be focused on evaluating the performance of John Lewis in previous years and the merchandising strategies adapted by the retailer in order to enhance its sales. Similarly, the marketing strategies for the forthcoming years would also be evaluated to identify the performance and productivity of the ships company in the unreassuring time of 2013. This study would highlight the reasons for the exceptional performance of the retailer that is not even in the go 4 retailers in UK i.e. John Lewis. Furthermore, the impact of the adapted marketing strategies on the performance of the company would be evaluated. This would help to identify the remarkable performance of the company in the market. In the end, recommendations would be provided for the retail company i.e. John Lewis, in order to enhance its sales and revenues in the industry and to gain competitive expediency over other competitors in the market. This would help the company to enhance its performance which will eventually perish to increase in sales and revenues.The year 2012 was a nightmare for the retailers in United Kingdom. The retail ripening in this particular year was just 1.2 percent. This retail growth could be said as the deuce-ace lowest growth rate in the last 40 years (The Telegraph, 2012). The economic crisis and the recession later on 2008 are the core reason for such downturn in the retail industry (ODonnell, 2011). Due to such recession, it has been observed that the Jessops one of the retailers in High Streets, has closed down all of its retail stores in the UK imputable to which almost 1370 people lost their job (BBC News, 2013a).Retail industry in UK is being directly influenced by the growing competition from supermarkets and internet retailers. This is one of the major reasons for the closure of Jessops in UK as the company was not able to cope with the changi ng trends in the retail industry. With advancement in the technology, the retail industry is pitiful towards

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Industrial Peace in Canada Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Industrial sleep in Canada - Research Paper ExampleEither is sometimes painful and destructive.The right of laborers to organize themselves into an association or junction is warranted in Canada by its laws on labor. One exceptional character present in the trade union environment in the country is the so-called Rand formula named after its creator, Justice Ivan Rand of the positive Court of Canada. The principle arose in the midst of a labor strike against the Ford Motor accompany. under(a) it, all proletarians are obliged to pay union dues on the justification that they are benefited from the efforts which the union undertakes in their favor. In order to make sure that union dues are collected, the employer concerned is authorized by the union to deduct the same from the payroll money of the laborers. (A History of Labor Unions in Canada. registered-nurse- footada.com. internet). It is worth to none that on some reasonable grounds, like in the case of religious or faith ori entations that do not allow followers to participate in a labor union or movement, a histrion or employee may not be forced to join the union or talk terms representative. In that case, an agency fee equivalent to the sum of the union dues has still to be paid by the worker or employee who does not wish to so join.For around forty years, union membership population in Canada has fared better than in the United States. Post-depression figures show that only about thirteen percent of workers in the U.S. select stayed as union members from the old average of thirty per cent. On the other hand, the statistics in Canada has remained strong and unwavering at thirty one per cent for non-agriculture manpower. For the whole public and private sectors, union membership in Canada is twice as much than the U.S. counterparts. (How anti-union laws saved Canadian labour certification and striker replacements in post-war industrial relations. Industrial Relations (Canadian). GOLIATH. BUSINESS K NOWLEDGE ON DEMAND. internet) There are now more than four-spot million Canadians in the list of union members.Organized labor in plants and other workplaces has its advantages. Honest and wholehearted union leaders can very well link the rank and file workers with management such that problems of each side are immediately addressed. Rapport is enhanced when the union and the management are in constant communication. Labor-management cooperation boosts the morale of the workers and therefore increases productivity. On another note, labor unions which are duly certified bargaining representatives have certain rights under the law. If collective bargaining negotiations bog down, the certified union can crave or apply an application to go on strike. In such a deadlock, management can also declare a lockout but it will do more harm than good to the company which has a lot of capital, investments and resources to lose during the shutdown. Industrial relations in CanadaHistorically, s trikes usually were resorted to when laborers tried to organize in order to achieve union recognition. This was so

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela Essay Example for Free

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela EssayNelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 at Mvezo, in tiny village cheeseparing the Mbashe River in the district of Umtata. In Xhosa Rolihanda means pulling the branch of a steer but withal troublemaker which describes Mandela quite accurately. Nelson Mandela was born into the Thembu kin group, he was a particle of the royal household but was not trained to be a ruler one(a) mean solar day, but groomed to be of help to the rulers. Nelson was a name given by Mandelas English teacher, in that age the British had control and a much English form of education came forth. Mandela had a happy childhood but unfortunately his arrive died when Mandela was merely nine years old.Nelson Mandela studied at Clarkebury. Later on Mandela was commit to Wesleyan College in Fort Beaufort in somewhat poor sleeping and eating circumstances.Nelson got a sense of immunity from his tribe and began searching inside himself as a person not just a trib e member or a Xhosa but as an Afri post, but as the famous Xhosa poet Mqhay spoke at the collage and inspired Nelson to put be a Xhosa first and a Afri coffin nail second. He later att annul University Collage of Fort Hare were he got knowledge of law, English and politics. This is where the seed was planted of Nelsons tree of wisdom. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela is one of the corkingest souls to ever walk the earth, his fight for freedom and equality will be remembered for centuries more to come.He is an icon of greatness and e re every last(predicate)ything we should inspire to be. Mandela is known worldwide for his extraordinary sacrifice he do in his struggle for justice and equality in South-Africa. If you judge of South-Africa without Nelson Mandela darkness comes to mind, where would we be if it wasnt for this adult male race? I think its a question many South-Africans would rather not answer, were just welcome that he was here. Nelson Mandelas fight against apartheid is probably the definitive moment of South-African history, the moment that were all finally later on years and years equal. That is the reason why I believe Mandela is essential toSouth-African history.In Nelson Mandela autobiography A long walk to freedom he categorized his life into different chapters. In these chapters we see Mandela growing, eruditeness and creating his point of view. Mandela saw the wrong in South- Africa and he k unsanded it had to be justified. During Rivonia trail Nelson Mandela state I lay down cherished the pattern of a democratic and free society in which all persons live unitedly in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an i allocate which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. (Mandela, 1995215) Mandelas different chapters give us an idea of the story of how this extraordinary man came to be. Mandela gives you a visual picture of his life in A long walk to freedom.We see Mandela as a little boy running around playing with the former(a) boys, alive(p) in stick fights and creation as free as one could be, this may be when Mandela cast off in love with freedom. In many occasions Mandela says that he inherited various traits of character from his let My forefather was a tall, dark-skinned man with a straight and stately posture, which I equivalent to think I inherited My father possessed a proud rebelliousness, a stubborn sense of fairness, that I recognize in myself we see that Mandela and his Father had a fair amount of character traits in common, and his father played a big role in the fundament in Mandelas character. Mandela also give tongue to although my mother was the centre of my existence, I defined myself through my father. (Mandela, 199526) Mandela didnt know it at the time but his whole world was about change. His mother informed him that he wasnt going to go on with them anymore Nelson didnt ask where he was going or why.When he reached the pl ace that was going to be his new home he was amazed but still felt bewildered. Nelson said It felt like a sapling pulled root and branch from the earth and flung into the centre of a stream whose strong current I could not resist(Mandela, 199526) He was also taken by the factor of wealth In that instant, I saw that life might hold more for me than being a champion stick-fighter(Mandela, 199526) Nelson Mandelas new home in Mqhekezweni brought many opportunities, Nelsons mother knew he would achieve much more, al Nelson Mandelas father ever wanted for Nelson was a great education so in a substance his wishes were granted. At the age of sixteen the regent decidedthat it was time for Mandela to embrace manhood meaning circumcision. Circumcision was a ritual of transformation from boy into man.The regent said that Mandela was not destined to work in the tap , he said Nelson would be a counsellor to Sabata, for n Nelson to be a counsellor he needed high education so he was send to Clar kebury after he finished in some struggling, he was send to Wesleyan College in Fort Beaufort. After that 21 year Nelson Mandela was send to The University College of Fort Hare. Nelson said for him and other young black children it was like Oxford and Cambridge, Harvard and Yale, all rolled into one. (Mandela, 199540) Nelson Mandela intimate both inside and out classrooms. He competed in soccer and cross-country running. Nelson Mandela met Oliver Tambo on the soccer field. Mandela said it was easy to see that he was destined for great things. (Mandela, 199541)Mandelas dream at this moment was to determine a degree and to earn money so that he could restore the wealth his mother doomed when his father died he wanted to give them all the things they couldnt afford. Nelson Mandela was nominated to stand for Student example Council but not all the students were allowed to vote so Nelson and the five others decided to resign from the council. The next day they voted again with all the students present but still only twenty five could vote so the same stack were appointed. They held a meeting and the five suggested that they accept office, tough nothing had changed for Mandela.Here you can see Mandelas love for democracy shine trough. Mandela resigned for the second time and he the only one out of the six that did. He was called in by the head of university DR. Kerr, he gave Mandela a choice hold fast and be on the Student Representative Council or leave. Mandela chose to leave because he couldnt let his accomplice student down and he had to do the right thing. Nelson Mandela returned home were the regent was very angry with Mandela. The regent also announced that his two sons will be married. This took Mandela by surprise. He and his brother fled to Johannesburg.As they arrived at Johannesburg they went to the mines seeking work but were turned down because they knew that they ran away from home. Nelson got a job as bind law clerk at Witkin, Nelson went abou t life as normal went to parties met some brilliant plurality and learned every day. The regent came to Mandela, he wanted to know what his plans were he supported Mandela and hadno intension to take him back but for his brother there was other intentions he was to come home direct return which he refused. Six months later the regent died and Mandela was overwhelmed by guilt. Mandela began working with Guar and Walter Sisulu. In the end of 1942 Nelson Mandela got his B.A degree and he was very proud. Gaur his employer also reminded him education wasnt everything education alone wasnt going to give them freedom.It was Guar that took Mandela to the ANC meetings. Nelson also participated in bus boycott with Guar. In 1943 the firm indentured Nelson Mandela. Later on Mandela attended the University of Witwatersrand to get his LLB degree in law. The university had mostly white people and in the law faculty Nelson was the only black person, most of the people werent very to Nelson which made him facial expression uncomfortable. Nelson Mandela and the other members of the ANC had enough of the negative racist benefits of being black.They wanted to form a youth coalition and after visiting head of ANC Dr. Xuma provisional committee of the Youth League was formed, under the leadinghip of William Nkomo. Nelson says the first-string purpose of the Youth League was to give direction to the ANC in its quest for political freedom.(Mandela, 199565) During this Mandela was still canvas part time. Nelson met his first wife Evelyn Mase at Walters house. They didnt know each other very long before they got married. In 1946 70,000 African miners along the Reef went on strike for a higher salary, a union was created for the miners. The miners decided to march but this was very violently repulsed by police. After the strike, fifty-two men were arrested and prosecuted, first for incitement wherefore for sedition.In 1947 Nelson was elected executive committee of the Transvaa l ANC. In 1948 only white people were allowed to vote. Dr. Xuma was removed as head and replaced by James Moroka, he was more move in winning freedom. Mandela said We had now guided the ANC to a more radical and revolutionary path. Mandela lamentably failed his last year at Witwatersrand 3 times and was denied his degree. Mandela continued with protests and speeches and the governance continued with arrests in masses. In 1952 Mandela was elected regional president of the ANC. On 30 July 1952, Mandela was arrested under the Suppression of Communism Act and went on trial with the 21 accused, among them Moroka, Sisulu and Dadoo, in Johannesburg. Found guilty of statutorycommunism, their sentence of nine months hard moil was suspended for two years.The ANC was split into two, the militant faction split to form a new make-up the PAC in 1961. The followers year police killed 61 peaceful black protesters. The ANC and PAC was then banned. Mandela was forced to disguise himself to avoi d detection. Mandela knew it was time for more drastic action. In 1961 Nelson Mandela became co-founder and leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, Spear of the terra firma a military branch of the ANC. Nelson later said It would be wrong and unrealistic for African leaders to continue preaching peace and nonviolence at a time when the government met our peaceful demands with force. It was only when all else had failed, when all channels of peaceful protest had been barred to us, that the decision was made to embark on violent forms of political struggle. Mandela launched a plan to sabotage the government.South-Africa at this stage was declared a country and free from British control. Mandela illegally went oversees to gain support in Ethiopia and advice from Oliver Tambo in London. On 5 celestial latitude after Mandela returned he was arrested and sentence to 5 years in prison for leaving the country and for being in control of the 1961 workers strike. This sentence would in time proven to be the least of Mandelas problems. The government raided a military hide out in Rivonia where evidence was found against Nelson and other ANC members. They were charge with sabotage, subversiveness and violent conspiracy alongside their associates. They had a trail that lasted 8 months, the trail attracted international attention. Nelson Mandela and 7 other members were sentenced to life in jail. Mandela spent his first 18 of 27 years in jail on an island prison just a few kilometres from Cape Town called Robben Island. He was treated badly because of the warp of his skin.Oliver Tambo began a free Nelson Mandela campaign which got the attention that they needed to free Mandela. The government made Mandela a deal release for political compromises, but he rejected them. In 1982 Nelson was moved to less secure prison, Pollsmoor Prison. The following year F. W. de Klerk was elected president and he lifted the ban against the ANC and in 1990 he ordered Nelson Mandelas release. In 199 3 Nelson and de Klerk were handed the Nobel prize. In 1994 Nelson Mandela was elected president of South-Africa. F.W de Klerk was his first deputy. Nelson went on to make South-Africa a great nation, everyone equal whether your black, white, Indian or coloured Its hard to imagine aSouth- Africa without Nelson Mandela. His importance was seen in the moment we lost him. In his book Conversations with myself Barrack Obama wrote the foreword saying Like many people around the world, I came to know of Nelson Mandela from a distance, when he was imprisoned on Robben Island.To so many of us, he was more than just a man he was a symbol of the struggle for justice, equality, and dignity in South Africa and around the globe. His sacrifice was so great that it called upon people everywhere to do what they could on behalf of human progress The Guardian said Mandela was a transformational fingers breadth to say he was a historical figure would not give him his full due. Some people move through history as being the first this or that just another figure in a lineage of persons. To be a transformer is to plan, to have the vision to chart the course, the skills to execute. To be transformational is to have the courage of ones convictions, to sacrifice, to risk life and limb, to lay it all on the line. Historical figures will reference Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela has such a great impact on South-Africa that I dont know if I would be here if it wasnt for him, none of us can say we would. If Mandela didnt do what he did we would have ended up in a war between white and black and many lives would be lost. Mandela saves millions and set millions free. Sadly Mandela died on 5 declination 2013 of a recurring lung infection, although Mandela never was a smoker. South-Africa came to a standstill we had lost our hero in physical body but he will never be forgotten.BronnelysJackson, J. 2013. Nelson Mandela changed the course of history for South-Africa and the US. The Guardian, 5 Dec. http//www.thegaurdian.com/commetisfree/2013/dec/05/nelson -mandela-changed-history-south-africa-us fight of access 15 March. Lewis, S. 2013. Why was Mandela important. BBC newsround, 6 Dec http//www.bbc.com/newsround/25263229 Mandela N.R. 1995.A long walk to freedom. Little, Brown and Company. Boston new-sprung(prenominal) York London Mandela N.R foreword by Obama B. 2010. Conversations with myself. Little, Brown and Company.Boston New York London

Is the Chinese Renminbi Undervalued Essay Example for Free

Is the Chinese Renminbi Undervalued EssaySince July 2005, first time being revalued afterwards 11 years of fixing at 8.27, Chinese kwai has been heading towards wholly one educational activity all the way from 8.27 to 6.27. Although kwai is a highly regulated silver by g all overnment, Chinese officials could no longer peg the Yuan as it used to be in a closed miserliness because WTO had opened up doors for Chinese manufacturers in 2001 to export cheap goods and services to developed countries. With trillions of foreign bang-up flooding into the country, Yuan has appreciated over 30% over seven years. However, this one-way money go down cannot be sustained. Though it is not sure whether Yuan is at the absolute equilibrium, it is currently neither importantly undervalued nor overvalued. This essay is going to explain why Yuan is modestly priced with analysis in both the basic principle and money flows.Needs for appreciation in pastIn theory, two open economies should ha ve akin purchasing power that is, if 10 units of foreign currency can buy something that is valued at 1 unit of domestic currency, the implied equilibrium exchange rate should also be 10(domestic as based money). Otherwise, in that respect is an arbitrage opportunity. We call this Purchase Power Parity. In reality, despite some limitations round this theory, it explains most of the evaluation problem in China. Take a look at Chinas Balance of Payments over 2003-2010 and it is obvious to observe huge surplus annually in both current and capital fiscal account, accumulating to a foreign reserve of $3.3 trillion.Reach equilibrium?At the government level, on one hand, it had to affix money base to maintain exchange rate against USD at a gradual appreciation pace. On the other hand, it needs to hold huge foreign assets, primarily in USD, to back up its currency from deprecation in the event of capital outflows. Amid the money inflow, Chinese central bank faced mounting pressure o f inflation on local assets. The private sectors are impacted in two ways. Firstly, Chinese residents and companies feel much richer now because higher RMB increases their purchase power of foreign assets. This kernel more imports and capital account outflows. Secondly, inflation and appreciation means that Chinese products and services are more expensive. And this would lead to less(prenominal) exports.Pew Survey showed that 70% of Chinese people feel financially better off than 5 years ago, which among the best in the world. In the last a few years, the fact of continues Yuan appreciation, associated with stories about how China is cash rich and how Chinese investors are buying everything they can in the world, raises interesting intervention if Yuan had appreciated enough. There is also a trend that more goods are manufactured in new WTO members such as Nepal and Vietnam that have price advantage over China. Moreover, in the currency transport market, investors have priced i n modest depreciation for Yuan in the next 12 months and spot market is no longer moving towards one direction.Data showsAll those various observations reveal the same surgical process that drives RMB exchange rate to an equilibrium level. Recent data also suggests that at current FX level, the rise in trade surplus and capital finance account surplus slowed (see chart below). So does foreign reserve.What does it means? If we apply a popular formulaCapital out flow = Foreign Reserve FDI bargain surplus Numbers imply that 62.4 128.5 145.8 = 211.9 billions has flown out of China in the first three quarters of 2012.Although this mind still lacks of actual evidence, the scale of growth slowing down in foreign reserve in 2012 is worth attention since it is so large that it is hard to be justified by seasonal accommodation or calculation period discrepancy. This might signal the start of reverse capital flows of Yuan, which means Yuan is no longer undervalued.UltimatelyThe answer to Yuans valuation problem is complex oddly given that it is still mostly controlled by government and there are so many propelling factors to consider. So far there are some money flows and data support the conclusion that Yuan is no longer significantly undervalued. In the long run, as expectation of Chinese government to forget a fully conversion Yuan is built on, maybe the real answer can only be found out by then.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Sensory perception Essay Example for Free

Sensory scholarship EssaySensory perception cannot be entirely certain specific bothy in terms of knowing what is real from what is not and what is good cognition from what is mere look for several reasons. For one, the benignant senses have the magnetic inclination to fluctuate in terms of its capacity to perform fit to its specific functions (Ross, p. 500). For good example, the ears, when suffering from an ear infection, are highly devoted to hear things quite differently.If this is the case, then our arresting perception of comprehend through the ears does not have a strong merit for serving as the foundation for knowing the real world and distinguishing those that are not real. It is also the case that human receptive(a) perception varies from person to person. For example, an ageing man may hear the similar rustling of leaves or rescue of an individual(a) quite differently from a little kid. Or perhaps the same note vie in a grand piano may faintly be hea rd by those with hearing defects but may be clearly be distinguished by the master pianist.These are nevertheless a few examples to illustrate the point that human sensory perception varies from person to person, and the list may very well be inexhaustible. This leads us towards the vagary that, since human sensory perception greatly varies, it may be quite difficult to reach at a solid agreement among individuals concerning the common appreciation of reality. Although there may be attempts to resolve such a crisis, the very fact that human sensory perception differs inhibit human beings from arriving at the bottom of the issue.Yet it cannot be doubted that, when asked about what is real from what is not, the raceency of the individual is to rely on sensory perception (Walton, p. 557). One can defend the idea that this pencil is real because the individual is equal to see and touch the pencil. There are many separate slipway in order to provide possible financial statements that support the idea that sensory perception grants human beings an portal to reality and a sum uping awareness of it. While it may be true that the individual is able to see and old the pencil does it guarantee the individual that, indeed, the pencil is real?One is to be reminded that our eye sometimes suffer from a blurring of vision and that our skin has the tendency to be sensitive or benumbed or somewhere between depending on the out-of-door environment and on the internal bodily processes the individual is experiencing. Apparently, sensory perception gives one fancys of ones external environment and that these experiences may correspond to an un wonderable inclination existing in the external environment of the individual (Brown, p. 336). If this is the case, then it is also probable that the object perceived through the senses may exist.Nevertheless, whether or not the object perceived exists in the external environment, the question remains can sensory perception be trusted? With the idea of trusting the senses, we are say towards the notion that the senses provide a way for the perceiving individual to sense an object outside of ones system (Sorabji, p. 60). It can be asserted that the senses provide the individual with sensory experiences such as the falsify and smell of the object, the quality of hotness or coldness and many others.The idea can further be stretched by arguing that, without the senses, the brain pull up stakes have no way of accepting data from the external objects. But how is one to know what is real from what is mere hallucination? Correspondingly, how is one to know that ones senses are giving an impression of a defective data offered by the impaired visual senses, for instance? The foundation for the refutation against the credibility of the senses rests on the idea that the senses of human beings are open to impairments and oftentimes prone to the trickery of the external environment.For example, mirages tend to trick the human eye and, consequently, the human understanding and the larger force field of human association. What appears to be a small patch of water in the middle of a sear desert is the visual effect of heat on sand from afar. Unless the individual decides to get closer to the theme of the desert mirage can one be able to fully discern the idea that the eyes do not give us what is really the case. This case holds highly probable for the individual. The larger aspect of the bad functioning of the senses can all the more than be observed in terms of two or more individuals.Take for example the case of two individuals and a small piece of freshly sunbaked bread. Assume that the first individual is one who lives in a warm region while the other individual lives near the fringes of Alaska. The first individual may very well allege that the freshly baked bread is not quiet hot while the Alaskan may very well claim that the bread is warm for the reason that the former is used to a warm environment while the latter(prenominal) lives in an environment where a little heat is easily detected by the skin.Or allow one assume that the opposite case is true for the two individualseither way, it can be observed that there is a difference in the way both individuals have experienced the bread in terms of its hotness or coldness. The instance where there are variations in the manner in which individuals tend to have a sensory experience on the warmness or coldness of objects is one deduction that, when applied to the larger context of humanity, there can hardly be any critical and steadfast sensory experience for the same object.While it may be true that humanity can generalize an object as either warm or cold, it nevertheless remains that it does not guarantee that all of the individuals have experienced one and the same degree of warmness or coldness of the object minded(p) the fact that the specific human anatomy widely varies from person to person although in dividuals may have the same general anatomy of, say, the head composed of the skull, eye sockets, teeth, etc.The point is that, although two, three, or a equalize of individuals may agree that this or that object is warm, there is hardly any coherent and precise sensory perception that unifies all of human sensory experience on the same object or purget at its most detailed form. This contention leads one to the consequent argument that sensory perception cannot be trusted and that these variations in human sensory experience fail to provide a secure account for what is real from what is not. Why cant sensory perception be trusted even if there are wide variations and disagreements on human sensory experiences?The answer to this question rests on the idea that human knowledge is a very critical aspect in the lives and progress of humanity. Since the daily experiences of human beings pretty much contribute to and define their knowledge of the external world, a corrupted sensory ex perience may lead to knowledge founded on false assumptions or beliefs. Further, if the wide variations in sensory experiences leave serve as the basis for human knowledge, then it is not a farfetched idea that it will result to multiple interpretations and, consequently, multiple forms of knowledge on the same object or event.All the knowledge in the world becomes relative to the numerous individuals asserting their own stand on what knowledge is knowledge becomes equally proportional to the total number of individuals advocating their own knowledge. If this is the case, can the separate notions of knowledge correspond to a genuine knowledge? Or does it give the guarantee that all of these knowledge claims are goodly and valid even though one or two of these knowledge claims come into conflict?The argument is clear sensory perception cannot be trusted due to its dire effects on the epistemic exploits of humanity inasmuch as there is the primary concern or need for a true and genu ine knowledge that transcends individual interpretations and relative sensory experiences. The seemingly imperfect condition of the human sensory variety meat contributes in large parts to the disruptions in the corresponding sensory experiences. This imperfect state should all the more prompt the rational mind to do away with trusting sensory perception as a guaranteed medium for obtaining knowledge and in understanding reality.Works CitedBrown, Kevin L. Dating Adam Smiths Essay Of the External Senses. daybook of the History of Ideas 53. 2 (1992) 336. Ross, Peter W. Qualia and the Senses. The Philosophical Quarterly 51. 205 (2001) 500. Sorabji, Richard. Aristotle on Demarcating the Five Senses. The Philosophical Review 80. 1 (1971) 60. Walton, William M. Is Existence a Valid Philosophical Concept? A Metaphysical Approach. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 12. 4 (1952) 557.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Interpersonal Communication Essay Example for Free

Interpersonal chat EssayThe capability of every individual create useful and efficient communicative mechanisms brush aside wait on prevent the further escalation of a conflict. Each action, movement, speech is consequential in establishing such idea. Thus, proper facilitation of interpersonal conference can duet the gap between two parties and help create possibilities for cooperation. Analyzing the problem critically, in that respect are certain communicative lapses present between the parents and the owner of the day care.These lapses tend to create diverse perceptions and ideas that in the end result into conflict among members of the group. Another issue that can be argued revolves around the tariff of the owner of the daycare. It has been elaborated that there are only certain parameters of care that the organization has to offer which is mandated by the handbook of DHA. These contending of ideas of how responsibility of care is administered also bring about stru ggles and conflict that can further embarrass and deteriorate the process of interpersonal communication.With these, solutions must be created to administer proper changes and facilitate communication. One important aspect to consider is to be sensitive to the situation and cultural background of the individuals. A stereotype, a laid impression about a group, may influence your perceptions of individual members you may see individuals only as members of the group instead of as unique individuals. (DeVito, Chapter 4, p. 1) The next thing to consider is the importance of creating good listening skills both to individuals and groups.However, there are many factors that affect the way people listen and enshroud things. Members of different cultures vary on a number of communication dimensions that influence listening speech and language, sign-language(a) behavioral differences, and preferences for direct and indirect styles of communication. (DeVito, Chapter 5, p. 1) In addition, individuals must be gender sensitive when it comes to listening. men and women may listen differently generally, women give more specific listening cues to show theyre listening than do men. (DeVito, Chapter 5, p. 1) Thus, different strategies must be created to facilitate better avenues for listening. The next possible solution can be characterized how people perceive and interpret communication by means of verbal and non-verbal messages. The way to creating effective interpersonal communication is the advancing and merging of both listener and speaker. Meaning is more than words and gestures kernel includes what speaker and listener brings to interpersonal interaction. (DeVito, Chapter 6, p. )With this, words, gestures and other meanings given are important in establishing interpersonal communication. Meanings are context-based the context heavily influences the meanings that words and gestures are given. (DeVito, Chapter 6, p. 1) Thus, these ideas prove to be a principal(pr enominal) catalyst in achieving interpersonal communication. The last process in trying to resolve this conflict is the communication process itself. The conversation between the listener and speaker plus the mechanisms that were used can be a vital tool in shaping the outcome of interpersonal communication.Maintaining conversations depends on the prescript of cooperation the maxims of quantity, quality, relation, and manner the principle of dialogue and the principle of turn taking. (DeVito, Chapter 9, p. 1) With mechanisms in place, conversation may be able to bridge the communication gap brought about by conflict. Preventing conversational problems may be aided by the disclaimer, a statement that helps to ensure that your message will be understood and will not reflect negatively on the speaker. (DeVito, Chapter 9, p. 1)In the end, giving solutions to the problem of communication revolves around the capability of an individual to dominate and foster efficient and effective me chanisms that will create an environment of understanding, collaboration and sensitivity among the group/s.ReferencesDeVito, J. A. (2005) Chapter 4Perception in Interpersonal Communication in Pearson Education. on-line Retrieved celestial latitude 9, 2007 from http//wpscms. pearsoncmg. com/ab_devito_intrprsnl_11/43/11047/2828208. cw/index. html DeVito, J. A. (2005) Chapter 5 comprehend in Interpersonal Communication.In Pearson Education. on-line Retrieved December 9, 2007 from http//wpscms. pearsoncmg. com/ab_devito_intrprsnl_11/43/11047/2828276. cw/index. html DeVito, J. A. (2005) Chapter 6 Universals of Verbal and Non-verbal messages in Pearson Education. on-line Retrieved December 9, 2007 from http//wpscms. pearsoncmg. com/ab_devito_intrprsnl_11/43/11048/2828345. cw/index. html DeVito, J. A. (2005) Chapter 9 Conversation. in Pearson Education. on-line Retrieved December 9, 2007 from http//wpscms. pearsoncmg. com/ab_devito_intrprsnl_11/43/11049/2828563. cw/index. html

Friday, April 12, 2019

Ipl Teams Essay Example for Free

Ipl Teams EssayIPL 2012 with flock of expectations and fanfare is just about to roll out in a few days and as the history of this version of cricket shows, in the country which is directly c aloneed to be the Mecca of cricket, IPL with its star lit, glamour rapped extravaganza is likely to become the talk of the time. This yr after the heavier-than-air crash of Indian squads fighter jet in Australia, there had been a sudden drop of commonplace interest in cricket but once the invigorateds of the auction of the players reached the media, the cricket fever started to spread. This mega tourney made the T20 version of cricket owing(p)ly popular across various cricket playing nations. This year there nonplus been a lot of changes in the squads of the squads. Here we would provide IPL 2012 police squad overview with a skeleton introduction to the squads.Chennai Super KingsAs the champion of previous year IPL 2012 and as the most consistent team in the short history of the tournament, there is a huge expectation level for this squad. Except the carriage of a frame of good cricketers there are nearly of the big names of the world cricket are in this team like, Michael Hussey, Mohender Singh Dhoni, Muthia Murlitharan, Scott Styris and Suresh Raina.Mumbai IndiansIt is the most starlit team in the IPL 2012 team overview. If India is now considered as the global centre of world cricket, Mumbai is the Mecca of Indian cricket and for all the past versions of the tournament this team systematically shown some extraordinary brilliance and though it still could not be the champion, for number of times it worked up immense expectations of making it to the top. Sachin Tendulkar as unarguably the greatest batsman in the history of the game belongs to this team with a host of great players like, Harbhajan Singh, Kieron Pollard, Lasith Malinga, Andrew Symonds, Michell Johnson, Harshell Gibbs and Robin John Peterson. It has probably the biggest fanfare amo ng the participant squads.Kolkata Knight RidersThis squad should be characterized as the most under-performing team in the IPL 2012 team overview. Though there had always been huge expectations from this team from the debut tournament to the last version, this team made almost a reputation of under-performing in regard to the ability and potential of the team squad. This team is one of the most star crowded as it is having a great number of bigwigs and promising stars of the game like, Gautam Gambhir, Brett Lee, Jacques Kallis, Brad Haddin, Eoin Morgan, Yusuf Pathan, Shane Bond, Shakib Al Hasan, Mark Boucher and Iqbal Abdullah.Delhi DaredevilsThis is a team which has been well known in the history of IPL as a great starter and in all the versions of IPL it had to quit without making up to the final. This team got some of the finest players both in the departments of bowling and batting. With Virender Sehwag, David Warner, Aaron Finch, Irfan Pathan and the costliest player of the tou rnament Ravindra Jadeja, this team has the potential to make to the pinnacle of glory.Kings xi PunjabThis year Kings XI Punjab is expected to produce some stunning cricket extravaganza with a promising squad comprising some great players like the rouse stylish batting legend Adam Gilchrist, David Hussey, Ryan Mclaren, Piyush Chawla and Shaun Marsh.Decan ChargersThis team has a great ability of showing some great performances when repeated defeats just come close to make the teams future written off and with imposing brilliance it had changed the fate of many teams when everything started to look as predictable. With the likes of great players like, Kumar Sangakara, Kevin Petersen, Ishant Sharma, Pragyan Ojha this team is capable to cause many upsets .Royal Challengers BangaloreThis squad is made of some of the great youthful players and can produce a lot of wonderful performances with the presence of players like, Chris Gayle, AB de Villiers, Mohammad Kaif, Tilakratne Dilshan, Dan iel Vettori, Virat Kohli and Zaheer Khan.Pune WarriorsThis year the team got the old time heavy weight and designer indian captain Sourav Ganguly. Though the team would heavily feel the absence of the big hitter and fashionable batter Yuvraj Singh, the team is capable of producing some brilliance performances with the presence of Graeme Smith, Jesse Ryder, Michell Marsh and Rahul Sharma.Rajasthan RoyalsThis team is always reputed to have shown some great examples of fighting spirit. After the recent retirement from the international cricket Rahul Dravid as the new captain of the squad is expected to have some extra zeal to produce a memorable performance as a classy batsmen and his cool captaincy can prove to be an plus for the team. It has a great bowling line up with the presence of stalwarts like Shane Warne, Shaun Tait and Shane Watson and also a great line up of players with promising batsmen and all-rounders like Faiz Fazal, Jacob Oram and Ross Taylor. IPL 2012 team overvie w made one point clear that this year the tournament is going to experience more balance in the performance of the teams because of the presence of good number of international level of players in every team.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

The Microsoft Case Essay Example for Free

The Microsoft Case EssayWhy was Microsoft investigated for antitrust behavior? Microsoft is a huge, established, salutary known computer software manufacturer. They were investigated for antitrust behavior after allegedly abusing their powerful position as the leading suppliers of computer operating systems. Microsoft developed a monopoly market structure be pull in the software which they created was only harmonious with Microsoft Windows operating systems. Back when the internet was introduced to the public, Microsoft provided Internet Explorer for free, bundled with Windows operating systems.This was a strategy to eliminate e actually competitors so they were obviously not perfectly competitive, thitherfore their case involved imperfect competition. Microsofts monopoly was saved by the applications barrier to entry so many competitors feared to try to enter the market.Microsoft also had the ability to summation their prices above marginal costs without losing many customer s so they were the price makers, and they also had market power. With that being said, or so people may say that Microsoft was a pure monopoly be mother they were the sole producers of the computer software market and in that respect were no close substitutes. On the other(a) hand, some may say that Microsoft was a natural monopoly because they bring in their powerful position by over driving their free market competitors.Before Microsoft grew so big, there were some economic observers that claimed that economies of scale would give Microsoft an unassailable lead that would result in monopoly. (Economides, 2003) I harbor that Microsoft was trying to gain monopoly power in the computer software industry due to all of the evidence. Microsoft completely dominated the computer software industry for which they had great strategies to do so. Monopolies can cause many ban effects on our economy such as higher prices, less jobs, it can put other companies out of business, and it can cause producers to be intimidated to enter the same industry. Monopolies can also cause productive inefficiency, allocated inefficiency, diseconomies of scale, and x inefficiency. However, a monopoly can be a acceptable thing, especially for a business. cosmos the leader or the giant of a particular industry can make owners, managers, and employees feelvery secure with their company. Although a monopoly can cause overpricing, it can also cause price reduction for which would cause other companies to not be able to compete. A monopoly can also be a good thing because the high profit can be used to fund research capital enthronisation spending. Lastly, economies of scale, international competition, and they have the power to be the price makers.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Parents vs. the Media Essay Example for Free

Parents vs. the Media EssayDue to childrens fascinations with power, recent massacres at schools harbor been linked to media influence. Often troubled children use the news to gain attention. Many of the children committing these crimes are children that are be teased in school. Most of the children involved in school shootings piss never had a yesteryear criminal record. Psychologists believe that these troubled children are using the media merely because no one else will harken to their problems. The reoccurrence of copycat crimes is on the rise, and it seems at times we overestimate how much violence is really occurring. The constant endeavor between the media and those who feel it is saturated with violence continues on. However, it is difficult to determine whether there is a strong correlational statistics between the two.Parents are uniting around the country to form groups against violence in the media. They believe that the violence in entertainment and the media is to blame for the copycat syndrome. Psychologists believe that children are vulnerable to feelings of psychological injury. Therefore, when children are cosmos tormented they feel a sense of rage and worthlessness. This feeling causes them to look upon society as an enemy. For instance, The Trenchcoat mafia was a group of teenagers that formed a violent gang, and turned against killed their classmates after seeing the movie basketball Diaries. They felt isolated from the rest of the school, and believed the only way to gain popularity was through displaying acts of violence. This type of behavior has drastically increased and is seen all over the media.Parents blame the media for over-exposure of school violence. The parents see the media lacking in follow-up stories. These stories should designate how it affected the lives of the killers, the victims and their families. Furthermore, the follow-up stories can present a better understanding of the consequences. Rather, the new s seems to be covering their viewers almost how to carry out such crimes.On the other hand, the media is simply providing the public with up-to-the-minute events. The media reports both positive and negative events. The news provides coverage on the issues that are most appealing to the public. For example, the runner school shooting at Columbine began a major controversy. The public became extremely concerned, and safety in schools became a hot topic. The media simply reports on these events, they are not to be held responsible for violent occurrences. Their state is to give coverage on events that affect our society as a whole.Parents should not view the media negatively, tho see it as a source of information. Such information can give parents reasons for teaching their children morals. Children that precipitate from broken homes may have been exposed to violence, and use this as a solution to their problems. Parents of these children should provide extra psychiatric help t o prevent them from becoming violent. If teachers are aware a students extreme misconduct, they should inform the childs parents as well as the schools counselors.Therefore, the school can solve the problem before it gets out of hand. Different approaches have been used to prevent these shootings from reoccurring. The most obvious solution has been increasing the security in schools, such as metal detectors and surveillance cameras. Some schools are simply educating their students about respecting each other, and have seen an improvement in the conduct of the students. When these issues improve, a healthier school will prevail.

Monday, April 8, 2019

The Rising Problem of Water Essay Example for Free

The Rising caper of weewee EssayAlthough irrigate is the commonest molecular compound (Crystal, 1990) there is a rising problem concerning its purity. We backsidet reach for the nearest stream and draw water for a drink the way deal did before. Today, water is for sale. Waters scarcity and depletion, lack of sanitation and pollution, inequalities in distri neverthelession, problems ca holdd by dam projects, to prodigal use or mis publicagement and even cross-border conflict, etc. (Godrej, 2003) account for the crises that governments are dealing with regards to water. Though water is foundational to life, e.g. part of our physical component, and as experts say it occurs in all living organisms (Crystal, 1990), truth is, the world faces a water crisis. Before pointing to big companies/factories and relegate to them the reason for this crisis, we are all delinquent when it comes to the management and the use of water. When ones use of water is too much or beyond the rate of dominion use, the hydrological cycle is being put in danger (Godrej, 2003). The hydrological cycle is so arranged as to part with for replenishing. When there is overuse, replenishing becomes difficult and depletion and pollution follow.Water like those in oceans and rivers, usually have natural pollutants, but only enough to be purified by the natural hydrological cycle. The main culprit for water pollution is man whose human activities are the causes of localized pollution. Heavy metals, oil spills, and bacteria, (Barnes-Svarney, 1996) are all contaminants which are results of human abuses.References1. Crystal, David. 1990. Water H2O. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia. Cambridge University Press, p. 1285.2. Godrej, Dinar. 2003. Crisis and challenge. Precious fluid. New Internationalist magazine, volume 354, pp. 9-12.3. Barnes-Svarney, Patricia. 1996. The New York PublicLibrary Science Desk Reference, p. 472.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Abortion Issue Essay Example for Free

Abortion Issue EssayAbortion is a moot issue yet it should be discussed because it is happening, and is more widespread than we c are to admit. If we truly care about action, whence we must understand what is going on. Ideally, pregnancy is a wanted and happy event for women, their partners and their families. Unfortunately, this is not perpetually so. Around the world, millions of women every year become pregnant unintentionally. In the Filipinos, as in other countries, almost of these women are faced with a difficult choice to give birth to a child that they are not prepared or able to care for, or to hold in an il intelligent, and often dangerous, miscarriage. As a Filipino citizen abortion is a crime. According to Articles 256-259 of our Revised Penal Code, whether youre the woman getting the abortion, the abortionist, or soulfulness assisting or encouraging the abortion, if you commit the act on purpose, you could get sent to jail for one month, to twenty dollar b ill years. No exceptions. For us, the consensus in abortion is strongly anti.Almost all of my classmates insisted that intentional abortion of any figure was murder, regardless of whether or not it was done to save the sustains life. Out of the forty-four students in our section, only about six said that abortion, if regulated, could be made legal. While I myself would prefer to overturn having to get an abortion as far as reasonably possible, I believe that this issue should be looked at through a more critical lens. Why? Because it is the attitude that most Filipinos adopt in relation to abortion is frequently more emotional than practical. Much of it can be traced back to a knee-jerk, culture-based reaction to anything involving babies and death. The lines on matters involving religion, culture, and tradition are quite blurred, and the results are all the same a neglectfulness outcry against abortion, or any sort of regulation concerning sexual health.See moreMasters of sarc asm John Dryden and Jonathan Swift EssayOBJECTIVES* Be able to understand and to be aware to the effects of abortion. * To tidy up the Filipino citizen not to agree to the so called abortion bill. * For us to share the learnings to the teenagers what does abortion really do to our human life.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYAbortion and Philippines LawsAbortion is illegal in the Philippines and is not permitted under any circumstance. The act is criminalized by the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, which was enacted in 1930 but remains in effect today. Articles 256, 258 and 259 of the Code mandate imprisonment for the woman who undergoes the abortion, as well as for any person who assists in the procedure, even if they be the womans parents, a physician or midwife. Article 258 boost imposes a higher prison term on the woman or her parents if the abortion is undertaken in army to conceal the womans dishonour ( sunburn 2008 and Wikipedia 2008).The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines effectively any amendments to the Penal Codes provisions on abortion because of Article II, Section 12, which states The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The meaty and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of chaste character shall receive the support of the Government.In the principle, legalizing abortion would require a referendum to amend the constitution, although the enactment of a more definitive provision sanctioning the ban was not successful. In 1999, Congressman Roy Padilla Jr. of Camarines Norte filed set up Bill 6343seeking to allow abortion in special cases (e.g., rape, congenital defects in the fetus or cases where the mothers life is endangered). It is unlikely that the bill will be passed but it has stimulated di scussion on abortion. The passage of HB 6343 will require amendment because the Bill as it presently stands is inherently unconstitutional (Wikipedia 2008 and Tan 2008).The unify Nations recognizes that abortion in the Philippines is permitted only in instances in which the pregnant womans life is endangered.However, in that respect is no law in the Philippines that expressly authorizes abortions in order to save the womans life and the general provisions which do penalize abortion make no qualifications if the womans life is endangered. It may be argued that an abortion to save the mothers life could be classified as a justifying circumstance (duress as opposed to self-defence) that would bar criminal prosecution under the Revised Penal Code. However, this position has yet to be adopted or debunked by the Philippine Supreme Court. Proposals to liberalize Philippine abortion laws have been opposed by the Catholic Church, and its opposition has massive influence in the predominan tly Catholic country.STATISTICAL RESEARCHESPhilippines is the only Catholic country in Asia and blow to that statistical data reported that there were some 400,000 to 500,000 abortion in 2005. The Department of Health added that some 100,000 women who have unsafe abortions every year end up in the hospital.About 4 in 5 abortions in the Philippines are for economic reasons, according to a survey by the University of the Philippines. In umteen cases, said Jocelyn Pacete, a spokeswoman for Likhaan, a womens health group based in Manila, the mother cant cave in another child, so ends up choosing her five living children over the fetus in her womb. (Source Legal_Updates)STATISTICAL FACTS, qualitative FACTSPrevalence of Abortion in the PhilippinesAccurate measurement of generate abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed service s and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on womens health. Information on the current level of unplanned pregnancy and abortion is essential for understanding the extent to which women face barriers in planning pregnancies and preventing unintended ones. Evidence on recent trends in these important indicators is also crucial in assessing whether changes in policies and programs are necessary. Abortions cut across class, age, and marital status, and guide in both urban and rural areas. The UP Population Institute (UPPI) 1994 study estimates that between 300,000 and500, 000 women obtain induced abortions annually in the Philippines.Put another way, there may be 16 induced abortions for every 100 pregnancies. According to Singh et al. (2006), induced abortion in the Philippines is widespread and practice takes many forms. just about half of pregnancies each year end in an induced abortion or an unplanned birth. unmotivated pregnancy is the root cause of abortion. Some 3.1 million pregnancies occur each year in the Philippines. Of these, 15% result in induced abortions, 31% in unplanned births, 39% in planned births and 15% in spontaneous abortions. An estimated 473,000 abortions occur annually. One-third of women who experience an unintended pregnancy end it in abortion. Thus, about 1.43 million pregnancies each yearnearly half of all pregnancies are unintended. The annual rate of unintended pregnancy is 81 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, meaning that about 8% of Filipino women aged 1544 conceive every year without intending to do so. Women from all segments of society experience abortion. Women who have had an abortion check average Filipino women The majority are married, Catholic and poor. They have some high school facts of life and have already had several children.METHODOLOGYSurveying students, friends and all the people around us that is automatic to answer our questionnaire. Weve made a questionnaire instead of direct interview t o the respondents. We are estimating around 50 respondents and from there we can assume a certain percent for the Pro-Life and Anti.REFERENCES(Source Legal_Updates)http//www.chanrobles.com/revisedpenalcodeofthephilippinesbook2.htm 1. hman E and Shah I, Unsafe abortion worldwide estimates for 2000, Reproductive Health Matters, 2002, No. 19, pp. 1317. 2. hman E and Shah I, Unsafe Abortion Global and regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2000, fourth ed., Geneva World Health Organization, 2004. 3. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Development, Abortion Policies A Global Review, Vol. III, New York United Nations, 1995. 4. Singh S et al., Estimating the level of abortion in the Philippines and Bangladesh, International Family Planning Perspectives,1997, 23(3)100 107 144. 5. Shire A and Pesso L, Changing policies and attitudes postabortion care in the Philippines, Compass, 2003, N

Saturday, April 6, 2019

African Allele Essay Example for Free

African Allele EssayIt is a fact that Central Africa is a rural area while the United States is highly urbanized. This means that diseases are more liberal in the African territory, integrity of which is the malaria. This widespread illness caused evolution to favor a type of change in the military personnel body to protect it from the deadly virus. This protection is the heterozygous make up of the hemoglobin gene, where one allele is the subnormal one that causes sickle-cell anemia.When comparing three types of persons, one with homozygous normal alleles, another with a heterozygous pair, and finally one with a homozygous pair of abnormal alleles, those with the heterozygous pair would contain the greatest chance of surviving the conditions of Africa. Having a pair of normal alleles would not save a human from malaria infection, and having a pair of abnormal alleles would cause sickle-cell anemia that can also kill the patient. Thus, in places such as Africa, the populati on has quite a progeny of people having the heterozygous hemoglobin gene.The lower number of sickle-cell allele carriers in the United States can be attributed to two main reasons. First, malaria is not as prominent in the United States as it is in Africa. People then did not adapt that much and this abnormal allele havent evolved that much. Another is the intermarriage between Africans and Americans. If an African, who carries the sickle-cell allele, would marry an American having a homozygous healthy gene, their children would only have a 50% chance of getting that trait, as compared to an African-African marriage (both heterozygous sickle-cell alleles), where the chance of getting the allele is 75%.

Friday, April 5, 2019

The Importance Of Wastewater Treatment Environmental Sciences Essay

The Importance Of Waste wet Treatment Environmental Sciences EssayWater scarceness is the major difficulty that is faced all across the world. Although 2/3rd of the earths crust is made up of pissing be offices all this piss is not available for drinking and for sepa rove human activities as either it is locked in the air of ice or present in the form of vast saline oceans and seas. It has been found out that 97% of the fit pee is salty that is of no use to human and animals (except shipboard soldier animal) and the re principal(prenominal)ing three percent is available as novel pissing. More than half of this three percent is locked in glacier and less than 0.01% is available as fresh peeing. So pissing resources ar less as comparing to human demand for piddle.Above this, the major set out of piddle that foot be consumed is acquire bemire be buzz off of human activities. This polluted and untreated piss supply supply is ca development abundant water system bo rne diseases. Then the world is set about a huge climatic change which is further aggravating the water problem. Some of the regions argon getting more rain water than earlier and whatever argon getting al close negligible. Experts even conceptualise that the next World War would not be for oil or land but it get out alone be for water.Also because of improper use of water and lack of water interposition, the problem of water crisis leave alone further maturation where 884 one thousand thousand people atomic number 18 already not getting unaccented memory get at to safe drinking water. And a further 2.5 billion people be getting difficult access to water for disposable and sanitation. Agriculture is in addition overusing and polluting the ground water thus depleting the instinctive source of water. So here water discussion plants will play important role.Water crisis at present is the biggest problem according to the United Nations. Almost 25 countries of Africa, separate of China, Peru and Brazil in Latin America, some parts of Middle East worry Iran, Chile, Mexico, and Paraguay ar some of the countries that are facing the water crisis. Even other parts of the world are facing the varied levels of the water crisis. Because of acute shortage of water, the regimen problems are getting aggravated. About 40 million people in Africa are facing the problem of food shortage. It is expected that if the similar conditions will persist so there will be 500 million till 2025 who will suffer from these problems. Nature has its role but the major water problem is arising because of its change magnitude consumption and faulty usage. Major chunk of the problem can be solved if the superfluitywater intervention is eatn very seriously and precautions at every step are taken to improve the water quality.The supply and demandThe demand for fresh clean water delivered to our homes is ever increasing as more and more residential homes are being establi shed. Although 70% of the world is covered with water, only 1% is fresh water and thus raises a need to recycle waste water to satisfy our needs. Efforts to continuously recycle waste water are always stressed upon as a shortage would mean a disaster in heavily populated areas. Governments call for committed billions towards research and development to such(prenominal) projects. unfermented water is to a fault needed in cultivation. The demand for water in this sector is very high gear as farmer need fresh water for crops and cattle. in that locationfore, stresses the demand for cloaca water manipulation plants to be built. Water from rivers and lake are in fitted to support water for farm and residences alike.The supply of sewage water sermon facilities are slowly dwindling. A crisis may arise from a lack of sewage water interposition plants as this would greatly reduce the supply of fresh water. Governments are desperately trying to keep up with the pace of development of the population but are slowly lagging behind. The supply of fresh water will be adequate for the next few years but if the development of sewage water discourse plant continues at its current pace it without a doubt a shortage would take place. Furthermore, the agriculture constancy will be greatly matched and the supply of food will go follow up as sound leading to famine repayable to a shortage of water.The prospects of this industryThe wastewater handling industry most probably will be successful in future due to presence of brisk wastewater word technologies. Advanced Immobilized Cell Reactor technology is one of the unseasoned technologies which immobilize the organisms such as bacteria in the pores of the carbon matrix. This process can avoid the immobilized organisms from floor load application as the diffusion of the pollutants from bulk fluid phase to organisms follows Ficks law.Through assemblyal biologic wastewater handling, infinite electrical energy and vast land area are being consumed. anyhow that, a huge investment in electromechanical equipment is involved which will bring about a huge total cost of operating theatre. Generally, the total cost of operation for spic-and-span technology is lowered compared to the convention technology. By using the new technology, the total cost of operation can be cut down to approximately 50 percent of the total cost of conventional manipulation.Furthermore, the biologic oxygen demand and chemical substance substance oxygen demand are reduced by 94 percent and 90 percent respectively. type O consumption in the new technology is lower than in conventional technology. The oxygen gas is supplied in the form if compressed air from the bottom of the reactor. Both liquid and gas catamenias are in counter-current educational application which facilitates the oxidisation of dissolve originals and desorbs the converted products. This is to make sure the spark off carbon keep up its activity without the process.Moreover, with all those new wastewater technologies such as Advanced Oxidation Process, NERV (Natural Endogenous ventilation Vessel), Wet oxidation and more others processes, wastewater treatment can be done efficiently. For instant, through the new technologies less land is required to use to build plant the power consumption is lowered. similarly that, the want for electrical and mechanical equipment is lower compared to conventional technology.In a conclusion, wastewater treatment industries have a good prospect in the future with the help of new technologies. By using all those new technologies, waste water treatment can be done efficiently with lower overall lifecycle costs, lesser energy and equipment needed. We are sure that there is more new technologies will be invented in set to improve the wastewater treatment.The impact on the environmentWhen the waste water is mixed with the waste materials such like garbage, household waste, toilets liquid and disposable things, the resulting product called sewage or waste water. This sewage water is unremarkably will undergo a few process before it is release to the environment but there are still some impact on the environment. One of the impacts on the environment is boorish impacts. The sewage water contains salts which is soluble that may accumulate in the root zone with possible calumniatory effect on soil health and crop yield. The physiologic and mechanical properties of the soil, such as dispersion of particle, stability of aggregates, soil structure and permeability are very sensitive to the types of exchangeable ions present in irrigation water. Thus, when effluent use is being planned, several factors related to the soil properties must be taken into consideration. On the other hand the effect of dissolved solids in the irrigation water on the growth of plants is also some other aspect of agriculture which we have to concern. Dissolved salts development the osmotic potential of soil water and increment the osmotic pressure of the soil solution which increases the growth and the yield of most plants decline progressively as osmotic pressure increases. In addition the one of the environment impact is ecological impact where the waste pipe water from waste water irrigation schemes drains particularly into small confined lakes and water bodies and surface water, and if phosphatesin the ortho phosphate form are present, the remains of nutrients may cause eutrophication. Here the overloading organic materials resulting in decrease in dissolved oxygen may lead to changes in the composition of a aquatic life such as fish deaths and reduced fishery. The eutrophication potential of waste water irrigation can be assessed using biological indices, which in turn can be qualified in monitory units using economic valuation proficiencys. The unavowed impact on the environment is the increase on the production of green house emissions. The large agriculture reuse project might cause to the environmental externalities associated with pumping water uphill which emits greenhouse gas. Another impact is on the health. The sewage water contains pathogenic microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, protozoans and parasitic worms, the diseases and signs related with such infection are also diverse including typhoid,dysentry and cholera, diarrhea and vomiting. the concentration of he pathogens in waste water is dependent on the source population and the susceptibility to infection varies from one population to another. So basically he waste water is actually harm for the nature even though its treated and release to the environment so as a human being we should not dispose the waste into the water thus our water will be clean and the cost of the treatment can be reduced.The Processes involved in this industryPre-Treatment(prepared by Brian Lee CL, 0902669)Pre-treatment consists of three sub-stages which are Screening, Grit Removal and Fat and Grea se Removal. Pre-treatment is done to finish up materials which are easily cool such as debris, leaves and trash which would damage or clog up pumps and skimmers of the primary treatment.Screening is utilise to remove large objects such as leaves, twigs and cans in the sewage drift. This is normally done with a giant mechanical rake bar which is automated. The rake bar revolves around a central axis at a rate varying on the accumulation and flow rate of the sewage rain buckets. The screens vary in sizes to optimize solid removal. Objects accumulated are collected and disposed in landfills.Grit is minute granules such as sand or stone. The wastewater is channeled to a chamber where to pep pill of the water is adjusted so that the grit would placate at the bottom of the chamber. Grit may cause damage to the pumps or other equipment. Grit removal may not necessary in smaller plant.Fat and grease are groups of compounds which are generally insoluble in water. The fat and grease a re normally found floating on the surface of the water. In some plants, the fat and grease are removed by using skimmers to collect the fat and grease on the surface of the water in a small tank. However this can also be done in the Primary treatment stage in the same manner.2) Primary treatment (prepared by Tan HY, 0903497)Primary wastewater treatment is the second step in the wastewater treatment process ahead of the preliminary treatment of a headworks, involves the physical separation of suspended solids from the wastewater flow using primary clarifiers. The objective of primary treatment is the removal of settle able organic and inorganic solids by sedimentation, and the removal of materials that will float (scum) by skimming. Approximately 25 to 50% of the incoming biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 50 to 70% of the total suspended solids (SS), and 65% of the oil and grease are removed during primary treatment. Some organic normality, organic atomic number 15, and heavy metal s associated with solids are also removed during primary sedimentation but colloidal and dissolved constituents are not affected. The effluent from primary sedimentation units is referred to as primary effluent.On the other hand, primary treatment is the minimum level of reapplication treatment required for wastewater irrigation. It may be considered sufficient treatment if the wastewater is utilize to irrigate crops that are not consumed by humans or to irrigate orchards, vineyards, and some impact food crops. However, to maintain potential nuisance conditions in warehousing or flow-equalizing reservoirs, some form of subsidiary treatment is normally requiredinthese countries, even in the case of non-food crop irrigation. It may be possible to use at least a portion of primary effluent for irrigation if off-line storage is provided.Primary sedimentation tanks or clarifiers may be round or rectangular basins, typically 3 to 5 m deep, with hydraulic retention time between 2 and 3 hours. Settled solids (primary sludge) are normally removed from the bottom of tanks by sludge rakes that scrape the sludge to a central well from which it is pumped to sludge processing units. Scum is swept across the tank surface by water jets or mechanical means from which it is also pumped to sludge processing units.2) Secondly treatment (prepared by Harintharan S, 1101379)The secondary treatment in this sewage treatment is one of the most important part in this process. This process is basically designed to remove the waste product from the sewage. This constitution is also assort as fixed-filmor suspended-growth transcriptions. The secondary treatment contain a few processes, the 1st process is activated sludge. This activated sludge is majority from the plants which encom persist the variety of mechanisms and processes that use dissolve oxygento promote the growth of biological flock that substantially removes organic material. This process basically change the ammoniat onitriteandnitrateand ultimately to newtongas. The 2nd process is this treatment is the Surface-aerated basins also known as Lagoons. This process basically removes the BOD from the sewage water. In an aerated basin system, the aerators provide two functions they transfer air into the basins required by the biological oxidation reactions, and they provide the mixing required for dispersing the air and for contacting the reactants (that is, oxygen, wastewater and microbes).However, they do not provide as good mixing as is normally achieved in activated sludge systems and therefore aerated basins do not achieve the same performance level as activated sludge units. The biological oxidation in the Surface-aerated basins is sensitive to the temperature and the rate of reaction increase with the temperature. The suitable temperature for this process is in between0 C and 40 C. Besides that the constructed wetland is one of the process also. This process is a process which cleans the draina ge of animals and apply to recycle the waste water. The constructed wetland are known to be highly productive systems as they copy natural wetlands, called the Kidneys of the earth for their fundamental recycling capacity of the hydrological cycle in the biosphere and they provide a high ground level of biological improvement but depending on design. The next process is the filter beds which is knows as oxidizing beds are used where the settled sewage liquor is spread onto the surface of a bed made up ofcoke, then liquor is typically distributed through perforated spray arms, then distributed liquor trickles through the bed and is collected in drains at the base, and thebiological films of bacteria, protozoa and fungi to reduce the organic content. The next process is the biological aerated filters are a combine filtration with biological carbon reduction,nitrificationor denitrification. Its a dual processer in purpose of to support highly active biomass that is attached to it and to filter suspended solids. Carbon reduction and ammonia conversion occurs in aerobic mode and sometime achieved in a single reactor turn nitrate conversion occurs inanoxicmode. This process is operated either in up flow or down flow configuration depending on design specified by manufacturer. In addition the Rotating biological contactors are the next process in this secondary treatment. This is actually a secondary mechanical treatment system which is capableof withstanding surges in organic load.The rotating disks support the growth of bacteria and micro-organisms present in the sewage, which submit down and stabilise organic pollutants. Oxygen is obtained from the melodic phrase as the disks rotate. As the micro-organisms grow, they build up on the media until they are sloughed off due to shear forces provided by the rotating discs in the sewage. Effluent from the system is then passed through final clarifiers where the micro-organisms in suspension settle as sludge. The slud ge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment. After that the tissue layer bioreactor combine activated sludge treatment with a membrane liquid-solid separation process. The component on this system uses low pressure for microfiltration or ultra-filtration membranes and eliminates the need for clarification and 3rd filtration. The elevated biomass concentration in the system process allows for very effective removal of both soluble and particulate biodegradable materials at higher(prenominal) loading rates. The final process in this secondary treatment is the secondary sedimentation where the process is to settle out the biological flock or filter material through a secondary clarifier and to assign sewage water containing low levels of organic material and suspended matter.4) Tertiary treatment (prepared by Raiminder S, 0904743)The main purpose of the tertiary treatment is to ensure that the treated water which is to be released on to the environment is biologically ac cepted by all other fresh water organisms such as weeds and algae. This part of the treatment includes processes like physical water treatment, lagunaing, and excessive nutrient removal processes.to ensure that the dis turn ond water is raised in effluent quality before proceeding to the final stages.In physical water treatment, much of the residual suspended matters are removed using only physical processes such as sedimentationmethod and the infamous filtration method. In the sedimentationmethod, the water is place in a definite tank to allow all the remaining heaver objects to sink down to the bottom of the container. After few hours went most of the dense object are separated from the water, the cleared effluent or waste swarm is removed. sedimentation is one of the most common methods, quite often used at the beginning and the end of many water treating processes. Another physical method that is commonly used in the sewage water treatment system is the filtration method. I n filtration, the water is allowed to pass through filters to separate the contaminating solids from the water. Sand filter is a common filter used in this process. In a number of wastewater treatment methods, semi-solid contaminants like grease and oil are allowed to float on the surface of the water, and then they are physically removed.Besides the in lagunaing where lagoon is a stationary system having a continuous flow several ponds running(a) in parallel in which the inlet flow and the outlet flow are equals form lagoon plants. The lagooning technique is a natural and very efficient technique that consists in the accumulation of wastewater in ponds or basins, known as biological or stabilization ponds, where a series of biological, biochemical and physical processes take place. In these ponds or lagoons, certain types of the microorganism are actually supported as these biological factors help in treating the water further by removing the fine particulates. These types of bi ological ponds are usually classified as anaerobic ponds or oxidation ponds depending on the shape, depth, organic rate, level of treatment of that particular lagoon itself.The excessive nutrient removal is the most viral step in the last stages of the water treatment before the water is released to the environment. When the previously treated water comes to this area of the system, the nutrients level mainly nitrogen and phosphorus in the water is checked. Where when found in excess, the excessive nutrient removal step is carried out. This is because if the unchecked water supply is to be released into the natural water system (river, pond, etc.) it will cause a sudden increase in the native microorganism population of that certain water system. Some of the native microorganisms which are commonly found in ponds today are usually weeds, algae, and cyanobacteria. Therefore, after the sudden rapid grown in the population of these microorganisms, the number of algae for example, becom es unsustainable which causes most of them to die and eventually decay. The following decay process would substantially increase the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in that particular pond, which would cause the other fresh water living organism such as fishes to die as well.Firstly, the nitrogen removal process is carried out. There are various methods of removing nitrogen, each with advantages and disadvantages. However, the biological treatment method is used most commonly. With this method, organic nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen is converted into nitrous and nitrate nitrogen in an aerobic environment, and is dispersed into the atmosphere as anaerobic nitrogen gas. Therefore the gas is removed from the water and released to the atmosphere. And as there is no secondary pollution, this can be called an effective method.In the removal of phosphorus is usually carried out using a method called enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The first process in EBPR is the mainstream b iological treatment process. Where the utilizing of aerobic and solids separation zones and the provision of return activated sludge are carried out. The next is a first side stream process for anoxic/anaerobic selection of desirable BPR organisms such as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Finally, a second side stream process serves to ferment organic material in some of the return activated sludge to heighten food utilized in the first side stream selection process. The system permits the three processes to be separated from each other by creating two side streams, allowing all three processes to be controlled separately and optimized in satisfying their own specific goals. Besides this biological method, the removal of phosphorus can also be done via chemical precipitation, usually with salts of iron, aluminum, or lime. chemical precipitation is usually more reliable, easier to operate, and requires smaller equipment footprint than biological removal. But the main back draws of this chemical method is that it may form excessive sludge production as hydroxides precipitates and the chemical used in this method might be considered expensive.5) Disinfection (prepared by Lim CS, 1001012)The main purpose of disinfection in the wastewater treatment is to provide a degree of protection from contact with infectants and pathogen organisms which will cause waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery and hepatitis. Disinfection is also used to reduce the load of microorganisms in the wastewater to be discharged to the environment. Primary, secondary and even tertiary treatments do not fully remove the incoming waste load and microorganisms in the water stream and as a result, many microorganisms still remain in the wastewater. Therefore, various methods of disinfection are introduced such as chemical methods, physical methods and biological methods.The intensity of disinfection depends on different factors including the quality of wastewater being t reated, antiseptic dosage, type of disinfection being used and others. For instant, cloudy wastewater will not be treated efficiently due to less contact time between ultraviolet dim and microorganisms. These microorganisms are shielding by those solid matters in wastewater stream and it reduces the contact time. Generally, long contact times, high concentration of antiseptic and optimum temperature and pH value will increase the effectiveness of disinfection.Chlorination is one of the chemical methods which is commonly used for disinfection in the wastewater treatment. It is widely used through the world due to its low cost and long-run history of effectiveness. centilitre can be applied in two general ways, liquid and gas. Chlorine in gaseous form is generally added to the wastewater stream rather than liquid form which is also known as hypochlorite because the former costs lesser than the latter. When chlorine dissolves in pure water, hypochlorous acid is form followed by hy pochlorites which are known as free residual chlorinesChlorine is an extremely active oxidizing agent which will react with many other substances in the water stream. For instant, it reacts rapidly with such compounds as total heat sulfide, ferrous iron and manganese which found in industrial wastewater. However, if all of the chlorine is consumed in these reactions, no disinfection will result. Hence, to accomplish disinfection, sufficient chlorine is added into wastewater stream to satisfy the chlorine demand and produce residual chlorine which will destroy bacteria.There are few factors which will affect the effectiveness of chlorination. Among the factors are pH, temperature, turbidity, control system and many others. However, chlorination brings some disadvantage to environment. Chlorination of residual organic material can generate chlorinated-organic compound which may be harmful to the environment. Those residual chlorines are virulent to aquatic species therefore, dechlor ination is needed, adding to complexness and cost of treatment.However, chlorination becomes less favoured as disinfectant due to rising cost and it had found to be toxic to aquatic species. As a result, ozone and ultraviolet begin to be used as disinfectant. Ultraviolet (UV) light is more environmental friendly to be used as no chemicals are used and leave no toxic residual. Ultraviolet radiation and damages the genetic material of microorganisms, destroying their ability to reproduce. Before pass through the UV disinfection unit, the wastewater must pass through an advanced pretreatment component. Wastewater flows in the stream parallel to the UV light in a thin film in order to increase the contact time.To increase the effectiveness of the UV light, the UV radiation must come in take aim with pathogen organisms and other microbial in the wastewater stream. The effectiveness of a UV disinfection system is affected by few factors including characteristics of the wastewater, the co ntact time, intensity of UV radiation and many others. Turbidity, flow rate of water stream and suspended solids are also play an important roles in UV disinfection. These factors must be unbroken at low levels to ensure proper treatment.Disinfection of wastewater, primarily by chlorination, has played an important role in the reduction of waterborne disease. However, there are more new disinfection processes are being developed in order to maximize the effectiveness of disinfection.Role of engineer in this industryThe Chemical Engineering is the commerce that combines chemistry and engineering concepts that help to solve problems related to world hunger, pollution of our environment, creating new materials, or run across demands for energy. Chemical engineers develop low cost processes for useful chemical products, which make it possible for both paltry nations and the United States to manufacture important fertilizers.The roles of a chemical engineer in waste water treatment h ave to minimize the waste across the plant or reduction of waste loading to the treatment plant. Other than that, chemical engineer need to state whether its systems for the treatment and reuse of wastewater, process water treatment for industry, high-purity water for sensitive medical or scientific applications, or systems to supply clean drinking water to people and their families.Besides that, as a chemical engineer also responsible for providing expertise in their respective discipline as it applies to the hazard analysis of the process being studied. Therefore, we also in charge for attending the initial hazard analysis kick-off meeting. On the other hand, we are also required to be available to the team as required with the understanding that the team leader will give adequate advance notice when their expertise is required. Lastly we are necessary to provide documents of any existing safeguards and procedures.Skills/ intimacy requiredMany types of skills and knowledge are re quired for chemical engineer in waste water treatment. They required intensive knowledge in wastewater treatment technologies, so that they will more easy to solve the problems when they face the difficulty. On the other hand, they also need expertise in equipment design, influent water treatment, effluent monitoring, and wastewater recycling.In addition, proficiency in computer, programming, modeling and data analysis, for example AutoCAD, Microsoft Office, FOTRAN, Origin, Maple, Polymath, and other software program are also the knowledge needed for chemical engineer. Moreover, strong technical writing, presentation, and project management skills are also useful skill for chemical engineer in order to present the researches after they have completed.Besides the skills at above the hazard and operability study (HAZOP) technique also needed for a chemical engineer working in industry. The HAZOP technique is most popular in most industry because that is technique which is structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation. Otherwise, HAZOP as well a qualitative technique based on guide-words and is carried out by a multi-disciplinary team (HAZOP team) during a set of meetings.