Friday, December 27, 2019
Task 1: a) Explain how different economic systems attempt to allocate scarce resources. Outline the economic system of the UK. The allocation of resources is an economic theory concerned with the discovery of how nations, companies or individuals distribute economic resources or inputs in the economic marketplace. Traditional business inputs are land, labour and capital. There are three major systems that can be distinguished in many parts of the world economy within these basic models there will be a range of variations and differences. Planned (Command) Economy An economy where supply and price are regulated by the government rather than market forces. Government planners decide which goods and services are produced and how they areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¢ Democracy and Freedom Disadvantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wasting resources through duplication of goods and services Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inflation and unemployment are more likely Ã¢â¬ ¢ Aggressive competition strategy can result in powerful producers wiping out local competition and local jobs. They are then able to exploit the market. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Firms control prices and therefore resources are not used in the most efficient way Ã¢â¬ ¢ Possibility of large inequalities amongst consumers resulting in certain goods and services only available to those who can pay Ã¢â¬ ¢ Profit maximisation might be achieved through lack of concern for society and the global environment Mixed Economy A Mixed economy employs features of both government/planned economy and a free market enterprise, where some important production is undertaken by the state, directly or through its nationalised industries and some is left for private enterprise. It is a type of economy in which private and public sectors co-exist and try to retain the advantages of capitalism and socialism while trying to eliminate the downsides of both the systems. The allocation of resources is created through the self-interest, competition and supply and demand of individuals and companies in the economic marketplace. Individuals and companies distribute resources through self-regulation by using only the inputs they need and selling or giving away their leftoverShow MoreRelatedStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words Ã |Ã 1351 PagesOur thanks go to Janice Nunn for all the effort that she put in to the preparation of the manuscript. Strategic Marketing Management Planning, implementation and control Third edition Richard M.S. Wilson Emeritus Professor of Business Administration The Business School Loughborough University and Colin Gilligan Professor of Marketing Sheffield Hallam University and Visiting Professor, Northumbria University AMSTERDAM Ã¢â¬ ¢ BOSTON Ã¢â¬ ¢ HEIDELBERG Ã¢â¬ ¢ LONDON Ã¢â¬ ¢ NEW YORK Ã¢â¬ ¢ OXFORD PARIS Ã¢â¬ ¢ SAN DIEGO
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
The Pursuit of Happyness Have you ever struggle to find happiness? The Pursuit of Happyness is a 2006 film written by Steve Conrad and directed by Gabriele Muccino. The film narrated the life story of Chris Gardner, a single father struggling to support his son and accomplish his dreams. The movie highlighted the problems of homelessness and family struggles.. The Pursuit of Happyness stresses an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to become successful despite seemingly insurmountable odds, while also highlighting the importance of family support . The Pursuit of Happyness is an excellent and inspirational film based on a true story that is worth watching. It shows the life of Chris Gardner, portrayed by Will Smith. Gardner experiences financial problems because he has trouble finding employment. When his family loses their house, his wife leaves him alone with their son. Chris and his son live in their car until he no longer has enough money to pay for parking tickets leading to the impounding of the car. Without a home or a car, Chris and his son resort to sleeping in public places at night. However, Chris is still determined to turn both their lives around. He invests what little money he has left in a bone density scanner. After the failure of this venture, he then sees a rich stockbroker who inspires him to join that trade as well. The film progresses to show Gardner achieving success as a stockbroker and finally earning the life he and his son have always dreamed of. The filmShow MoreRelatedPursuit Of Happiness Movie Analysis1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Pursuit of Happiness The movie Pursuit of happyness was based on a true story of a small family. The father, Chris Gardner eventually becomeÃ¢â¬â¢s a single father of a young son because of the struggle of the economy trying to sell bone density scanners .The movie takes place in San Francisco, California in the 1981. In this movie, it shows strength, survival of the economy, and how if you set your mind to get something you want it can change your life around. Success always starts with what
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Describe about the Public Health for Easier Decision Making. Answer: Health Impact Assessment Program Health impact assessment (HIA) is defined as a combination of tools, methods and procedures that are used for the evaluation of the potential effects of health of a project, program or policy. Using the techniques of participatory, quantitative and qualitative, the program aims to produce the recommendations that help the stakeholders and the decision makers to make the choices about the improvements and alternatives for the prevention of injury and diseases and promote active health (Winkler et al. 2013). The topic of the health impact assignment program for this assignment will be a population-based prevention program of childhood obesity. The program will be named as Healthy Kids (HK) program and will be carried out in New South Wales (NSW) and will be delivered to the non-aboriginal and aboriginal children of Australia. Childhood obesity is a growing health concern globally and in Australia, one out of four children is found to be either obese or overweight. This has been my topi c of interest as obesity in children reduces their psychological well-being and can bring about physical deterioration that includes cardiovascular diseases, breathlessness and sleep apnea. Therefore, it is essential to focus on this growing concern and therefore, this health impact assessment program will analyze the problem and recommend on its prevention. Childhood obesity is the condition where excessive body fat gets accumulated at an early age. Healthy lifestyle can be of great benefits to the children regarding their wellbeing and heath and prevent them from acquiring childhood obesity (Karnik and Kanekar 2015). In the past 30 years, childhood obesity has increased by two folds and the percentages of children who are aged 6-11 years have increased from 7% to 18% from 1980 to 2014 (Campbell et al. 2013). Childhood obesity is a result of caloric imbalance where little amount of calories are expended against the greater amount of calories consumed. This is affected by the environmental, behavioral and genetic factors. Childhood obesity can have immediate and long-term health effects. The immediate effects include pre-diabetes condition with elevated blood glucose levels and the long-term health effects appear when they grow up into obese adults. In Australia, the rates of childhood obesity are higher among the indigenous and aborigin al children compared to the non-indigenous Australians. This brings about a negative impact on their health and therefore, this widens the gap in life expectancy between the two types of children. In the year 2012 2013, 30% of the children of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who were aged between 2 to 14 years were found to be obese with regards to their respective BMI. The rates of obesity among the aboriginal girls and boys were found to be 32% and 29% respectively (Hendrie, Coveney and Cox 2012). The government of NSW developed a program named Prevention of Obesity in Children and Young People: NSW government action plan and it was found that the prevention policy is still in its infancy and is facing remarkable challenges in delivering the complex changes that are essential in achieving the positive outcomes (Dooyema et al. 2013). However, the policy has built sufficient support and commitment to creating the momentum for strategic policies in future. The current heal th policy of NSW directs new policies and strategies that have an impact on the health within the communities of the aboriginals and can be subjected to a health impact statement of the aboriginals. The statement is used for ensuring that the health needs of the communities of the aboriginals are integrated and considered during the development of the policies and programs through the encouragement of negotiation and consultation with the Aboriginal people (Kim et al. 2016). Since the HK program addressed these vital issues through the intensive community and HIA consultation project, an agreement was developed with the health branch of the aboriginals so that a health impact statement of the aboriginals was not required. The indicators of good health were found to be lower in the communities of the aboriginals in NSW when compared to their non-aboriginal counterparts. The HK program aimed to address this disparity and therefore, developed several strategies for closing this gap and helping the aboriginal children to stay active and eat well in alignment with the non-aboriginal children. It was commented by the Prime Minister Mr. Tony Abbott in 2014 that the effort to close the gaps was very much disappointing and sufficient direction is required to bring about the positive outcomes (Browne-Yung et al. 2013). According to a study conducted by Lacy et al. (2012), the monitoring of childhood obesity is poorly carried out in Australia. It is a fundamental component of the prevention of obesity and provides essential population health data for tracking the trends over time and identifies the areas that are at the greater obesity risk. The authors have recommended that the authority should collect the weight and height measurements by using the opt-out consent for monitoring the childhood obesity rates in Australia. Figure 1: Childhood Obesity in Australia Source: Hayes et al. 92016) The process of screening determines whether the HIA is required or appropriate. Screening assures that resources, effort and time are appropriately targeted. The screening process is carried out to determine whether or not a policy or program have significant impacts on health for warranting the completion of a program of HIA. The process of screening establishes whether or not a particular project, program or policy has a profound impact on health. It determines how policy affects the health of the populations of the vulnerable sections and the scale and direction of the health impacts and measures whether they are speculative, serious or negligible (Harris-Roxas et al. 2012). The screening process identifies whether the effects are long term or short term and indirect or direct and inquires whether there is a requirement for more detailed assessment. The screening process ensures if HIA is the best possible method for effectively addressing the equity and health issues. Although HK program was aimed at conducting on both the aboriginal and non-aboriginal children, it focused on the aboriginal children more as they are the ones who require the attention more than the non-aboriginal children to tackle childhood obesity (Badland et al. 2014). Therefore, the deliberate focus of the program was to the Aboriginal children and the step of screening included focusing on the potential impacts on the health of the aboriginals. The screening process for the HK program was carried out by forming a screening team that consisted of three staff members from an institute of health equity training, evaluation and research and one employee of the department of health of the local health body. An additional panel of experts of nine members was recruited for undertaking the assessment steps of the HIA. All of them were experienced in the process of conducting HIA. The members of the expert panel had expertise in policy analysis, chronic disease prevention, health promotion, earl y intervention and health equity. The panel identified that the existing processes of HIA requires modifying and reviewing to suit the program needs. An appropriate model of health was selected that included the community health with the environmental and social connection of the individual health. The National Obesity Task Force model was selected and combining its framework with the literature provided by the institute of health, a tool was developed for facilitating the screening (Bacelar-Nicolau, Miguel and Saporta 2015). The tool was designed as survey questionnaires that consisted of closed-ended question which can be answered with yes or no. The outcome of the screening process was assessed by analyzing the responses of the screening tool and it was found that HK program could produce negative or positive impacts on the health of the children. From the process, it was identified that the program should be carried out with the further steps of the HIA and the tools have to be modified for suiting the context of Australian Aboriginal children. A lengthy discussion was not possible with the children as time did not permit but the importance of the discussion was highlighted and employment of Aboriginal stakeholders was encouraged. Table 1: Survey Questionnaires of the Tool Is the potential for the impacts of positive health affecting the health determinants of the aboriginal children who are aged 0 to 14 years? Do the potential effects have serious negative impacts on health? Do the negative impacts have the ability to increase the existing inequalities in health between the non-indigenous and indigenous people? Is the proposed HIA program impacting the cultural, mental, spiritual and emotional health and well-being? The scope of the HIA was designed for the identification of the type of HIA to be undertaken and when and how it has to be implemented. The scoping process included the designing and planning of the HIA by setting out its various parameters. A thorough step of scoping saves considerable resources, work and time in the rest of the steps and therefore, is regarded as the key step (McCallum, Ollson and Stefanovic 2016). In the broader context of the HK program, an extensive process of consultation with the targeted communities of the aboriginals was conducted at the same time along with the HIA. This project of consultation was framed for allowing the aboriginal communities to have their views and inputs in the implementation and further modification of the HK program and express their opinions on the existing strategies of the program (Delany et al. 2014). With this stakeholder-community participation in the designing of the program, a separate process for community consultation was no t carried out. A standard community profiling exercise was undertaken as the indicators of the socio-economic status of the aboriginal communities have a holistic view of the entire community (Haigh et al. 2015). It was found that the literature and evidence on the effectiveness of the interventions of physical activity and nutrition for the aboriginal children were limited. Therefore, the working party members of HK agreed to comment on the impacts of the program including their collective experience in the process of delivering the programs to the Aboriginal children. The working party members were aboriginal people and possess experience of working in the community and government agencies and their personal experiences on the knowledge and experiences of the Aboriginal communities. The working party consisted of four cluster coordinators of the Aboriginal health of NSW, the CEO of the medical service of the aboriginals, the coordinator of the health programs of the Aboriginal med ical service and the program manager of the Aboriginal health of NSW. It also included the aboriginal educational consultants and advisor with the project coordinator and officer of indigenous health. The members of the working party also included the staff members of the HK and the aboriginal development officer of NSW. The HIA of HK was carried out as a workshop of two days that was facilitated jointly by the representative of the aboriginal health of NSW and the staff members of HK. During the workshop, the settings and streams of the program were detailed and summarized by the staff of the working party as part of the introduction. This was followed by the discussion of the various stream strategies. From the group discussion, primary data was collected for the potential effectiveness of the program and its strategy to benefit the aboriginal children by equally reaching them in the program setting. The discussion tried to identify the mission of the stream and its potential and known health impacts. It was discussed whether the aboriginal children would face any sort of disadvantage by the initiative with unanticipated and inequitable impacts. The final area was the key recommendations for the implementation. Analysis of the collected data framed the recommendations of the program for amending the existing strategies for making them more suitable and new strategies were developed by identifying gaps in the existing strategies (Hirono et al. 2016). The estimated budget of the project was AUS$ 500,000 and the source of funding was the NSW health boards and the stakeholders. The estimated duration of the project was four years. Several impacts were identified from the discussion which was both negative and positive. The positive impact was definite with significant scales for the fact that the HK program was well placed for getting added to the evidence base for the childhood obesity and overweight rates in the communities of the aboriginals. Since the agenda of Aboriginal health is already overcrowded, the HK program has to be made a priority as it included the obesity and overweight management of the Aboriginal children that do not have sufficient data (Jandu et al. 2015). This will raise awareness regarding the health problems that are associated with childhood overweight and obesity and will generate accurate data for reporting the actual situation of the Aboriginal communities in NSW. The negative impact of the HK program was probable and the scale was minimal as the aboriginal people had a lower range of socio-economic status and therefore, it was unclear whether the interventions of the program would place an extra financial burden on the families. Since the aboriginal family models were similar to the extended family, therefore the strategies and objectives of the individual streams have to be different from the nuclear family models for engaging all the family members as carers of the aboriginal children. Several factors are responsible for limiting the effectiveness of the HK program. The first limitation of the program is the resistance by the government as every government has its primary objectives like environment, agriculture and transport. Health becomes the secondary objective and if it is the health of the Aboriginal children, it will get a setback (Birley 2013). The government of NSW is likely to place the program at the second place for its implementation. The Aboriginal medical services have limited funds and resources that can act as a limitation for the effectiveness of the HIA. Since the government placed health as a secondary priority, grant of funds was also shifted back. As this type HIA is new to the state, therefore skilled professionals are not available for carrying out the work responsibilities and as the aboriginals were also included in the program, they have to be trained appropriately for effective implementation. Sufficient data are unavailable for childhoo d obesity prevention program in NSW, therefore there is a lack of access to the essential data like community profiling data that is essential for developing strategies (Haigh et al. 2013). Within a short phase of time, the program has to be implemented and all these factors are collectively responsible for limiting the effectiveness of the HK program. The monitoring of the HK program will be done at every step of its implementation and the evaluation will be done on an annual basis. Assessment of the adoption of the recommendations whether they have resulted in quantifiable outcomes of health will be evaluated along with the accuracy of the predictions of health with the assumptions for the recommendations. It will be evaluated annually whether there has been a change in the lifestyle of the aboriginal children regarding their eating habits and whether there has been a decrease in the occurrence of obesity among the children. The long-term outcomes of health will also be evaluated after the completion of the program. The findings of the program would be presented in the form of a written report to the department of health of NSW and a copy to the federal government. A power point presentation will also be delivered to the government delegates and stakeholders of the HIA and the report will be discussed to advocate the changes associate with childhood obesity in Australia. The positive impact of the program will be enhanced by implementing various methods of increasing awareness for a healthy lifestyle along with individual counseling of the obese children. The negative impacts can be mitigated by providing financial support to the Aboriginal communities to provide a healthy diet to their children (Pope et al. 2013). From the unit, I gained elaborate knowledge about the aboriginal community and their social determinants of health that leads to the unhealthy life of their children. These strategies, skills and contacts can help me in improving the equity by which the program was targeted to the non-aboriginal and aboriginal children. The program has been better positioned for meeting the needs of the aboriginal children without increasing the inequalities in their health status. Similar programs can be implemented in future for prevention of adolescent and adult obesity in Australia as it is a current issue that is pertinent to the HIA program. References Bacelar-Nicolau, L., Miguel, J.P. and Saporta, G., 2015. Screening Policies for Health Impact Assessment: cluster analysis for easier decision making.European Journal of Public Health,25(suppl 3), pp.ckv171-014. Badland, H., Whitzman, C., Lowe, M., Davern, M., Aye, L., Butterworth, I., Hes, D. and Giles-Corti, B., 2014. Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.Social Science Medicine,111, pp.64-73. Birley, M., 2013.Health impact assessment: Principles and practice. Routledge. Browne-Yung, K., Ziersch, A., Baum, F. and Gallaher, G., 2013. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.Social Science Medicine,97, pp.20-28. Campbell, M., Bryson, H.E., Price, A.M. and Wake, M., 2013. Childhood obesity in secondary care: National prospective audit of Australian pediatric practice.Academic pediatrics,13(2), pp.168-176. Delany, T., Harris, P., Williams, C., Harris, E., Baum, F., Lawless, A., Wildgoose, D., Haigh, F., MacDougall, C., Broderick, D. and Kickbusch, I., 2014. Health impact assessment in New South Wales Health in all policies in south Australia: Differences, similarities and connections.BMC public health,14(1), p.1. Dooyema, C.A., Belay, B., Foltz, J.L., Williams, N. and Blanck, H.M., 2013. The childhood obesity research demonstration project: A comprehensive community approach to reduce childhood obesity.Childhood Obesity,9(5), pp.454-459. Haigh, F., Baum, F., Dannenberg, A.L., Harris, M.F., Harris-Roxas, B., Keleher, H., Kemp, L., Morgan, R., Chok, H.N., Spickett, J. and Harris, E., 2013. The effectiveness of health impact assessment in influencing decision-making in Australia and New Zealand 20052009.BMC public health,13(1), p.1. Haigh, F., Harris, E., Harris-Roxas, B., Baum, F., Dannenberg, A.L., Harris, M.F., Keleher, H., Kemp, L., Morgan, R., Chok, H.N. and Spickett, J., 2015. What makes health impact assessments successful? Factors contributing to effectiveness in Australia and New Zealand.BMC public health,15(1), p.1. Harris-Roxas, B., Viliani, F., Bond, A., Cave, B., Divall, M., Furu, P., Harris, P., Soeberg, M., Wernham, A. and Winkler, M., 2012. Health impact assessment: the state of the art.Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal,30(1), pp.43-52. Hayes, A., Chevalier, A., D'Souza, M., Baur, L., Wen, L.M. and Simpson, J., 2016. Early childhood obesity: Association with healthcare expenditure in Australia.Obesity,24(8), pp.1752-1758. Hendrie, G.A., Coveney, J. and Cox, D.N., 2012. Defining the complexity of childhood obesity and related behaviours within the family environment using structural equation modelling.Public health nutrition,15(01), pp.48-57. Hirono, K., Haigh, F., Gleeson, D., Harris, P., Thow, A.M. and Friel, S., 2016. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.BMJ open,6(4), p.e010339. Jandu, M.B., de Medeiros, B.C., Bourgeault, I. and Tugwell, P., 2015. The inclusion of migrants in health impact assessments: A scoping review.Environmental Impact Assessment Review,50, pp.16-24. Karnik, S. and Kanekar, A., 2015. Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis.Int J Prev Med, 2012. 3 (1), pp.1-7. Kim, S., Macaskill, P., Baur, L.A., Hodson, E.M., Daylight, J., Williams, R., Kearns, R., Vukasin, N., Lyle, D.M. and Craig, J.C., 2016. The differential effect of socio-economic status, birth weight and gender on body mass index in Australian Aboriginal Children.International Journal of Obesity. Lacy, K., Kremer, P., SilvaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Sanigorski, A., Allender, S., Leslie, E., Jones, L., Fornaro, S. and Swinburn, B., 2012. The appropriateness of optÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã out consent for monitoring childhood obesity in Australia.Pediatric obesity,7(5), pp.e62-e67. McCallum, L., Ollson, C. and Stefanovic, I., 2016. Prioritizing health: a systematic approach to scoping determinants in health impact assessment.Frontiers in Public Health,4, p.170. Pope, J., Bond, A., Morrison-Saunders, A. and Retief, F., 2013. Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: setting the research agenda.Environmental Impact Assessment Review,41, pp.1-9. 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Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Psychics On Tv These articles were very interesting. I have seen these psychics on t.v. and I always knew they were full of it. Alot of people spend millions of dollars a year on these folks , so it was cool to see how they did it. In the part where Ms. Coleman talks about going to the casino to practice, she showed us that it didn't really take that much to become a psychic. She said that she had prepared somewhat, but didn't really know that much about the whole charade of being a psychic. I know that the people who do this for a living have probably perfected the art of picking out things about clients and going with them, but it doesn't take supernatural powers to be a psychic, just a bit of good luck and a small amount of acting skills. I would love to see people that actually think that they are psychic try to take Randi up on his $1M Challenge. He said that the only brave soul to try it had failed it miserably, as I'm sure just about every other one would too. I don't believe that anyone has psychic powers. If they did, the media would jump all over it, and then psychologists would run 400 tests on the person, and we would know about it. Sylvia Browne is not a psychic, she is a good actress. If there are all these psychics out there, why didn't they tell us about the Oklahoma City bombing, or about Hurricane Andrew? People that go to psychics might think that psychics are real, but unconciously they are just wanting to hear positive things, or to get an answer to a problem. Some of them might actually get help, not from the psychics themselves, but from what they psychic brings out in the person's mind. I am not saying that everyone who goes to a psychic is crazy, but for most people, psychics are the last resort. They think that maybe, just maybe, this psychic can solve all their problems, or tell them that things are going to get better. I think psychics are like placebos; they don't actually do anything helpful, but they plant the seed in people's minds that things will change, and that the change will be good. We believe them, and if you think about something long enough, its probably going to happen. Tarot cards are another psychic phenomenom that has people wasting money. Tarot cards are designed to be as general as they can in hopes that the client will identify something that the psychic can then tell them about. Psychics hardly ever tell you things, they just ask you questions. They know which questions to ask to get a response out of you. Everyone has had a bad relationship or someone close to them die, so the psychic is probably going to be right when they say something like I see a relationship gone bad. I think psychics should be thrown off t.v. All they do is talk about how they can tell you about love, money, and your career when we could be watching the Duke boys foil one of Boss Hog's devious plans. Psychics are more like psychiatrists; they ask you questions to help you get through your tough times. Sociology Issues