Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing

Thorr Motorcycles, Inc. is manufacturing over 200,000 units annually and has current worth in excess of a billion dollars. Thorr is a leading name and holds around 40% of the total market. It not only sells motorcycles but also offers dealer training, dealer software support and mechanical training. For customers, it offers motorcycle rentals and biker training. Projected image of CruiserThorr is of â€Å"masculinity, mobility, and freedom†. Currently Thorr is experiencing decline in sales and wants to know the reason.Thorr can inquire from customers what they want to have in the motorcycle and then change it accordingly. Another way is to change the customer perception about the motorcycle. Phase I: Where is the Thunder? The first phase is the problem statement that the sales are decreasing, â€Å"The motorcycle industry is growing annually, but sales of Thorr Motorcycle’s existing product CruiserThorr (a 1500cc power cruiser priced at $25,800) are deceasing† (U niversity of Phoenix, 2008). This may be because of change in target market characteristics.The people being targeted are now old, their lifestyles have changed and they are not interested in getting a motorcycle. On the other hand, younger generation has comparatively smaller disposable incomes and they are more interested in buying an affordable motorcycle. Thorr needs a new redesigned marketing strategy to win back the sales. In this paper, market position of CruiserThorr motorcycles will be determined by using a perceptual map. This positioning on the map will be based on four fundamental parameters that can used to promote Thorr.Lifestyle reflection, price, quality engineering and offered services, were the chosen fundamental factors. Lifestyle image is the most important factor in this mapping because production motorcycles always sell on their image rather than specifications. Quality engineering is also important as no one likes to buy unreliable products. Quality of a motor cycle can also initiates word of mouth promotion for the company. In addition, no company can continue in the long term without providing quality products to the customers. Pricing is the next fundamental factor and it is on the base of price most people buy products.However, in case of motorcycles, customer’s image of a motorcycle is directly linked to its price that is why there is a small risk if company tries to decrease the prices that its image may get hurt in eyes of the customers. Services are also important to keep the dealers and distributors happy. This also ensures that customers remain loyal to the company. Recommendations and suggestion that were provided at the end of phase I proved to be successful. Phase II: Revving up the Market Phase II notifies about Thorr’s market position and its sales are not improving due to poor positioning.There are two ways out of it; repositioning of CruiserThorr or launching of a new motorcycle called RRoth. Phase II shows a SWOT analysis along with customer demands and income clusters. In addition, financing documents were also provided. Customer preferences are the most important factor here as the company is trying to target a much younger audience than that of CruiserThorr. Age group of target audience is chosen to be 25-35 years so the product should be according to their preferences. Thorr has decided to launch RRoth. $12,649,000 is spent out of allotted $13 million dollars for the marketing plan.Keeping the young people and their salary range in mind, new motorcycle will be priced between $13000 and $15000. Wide range of promotional techniques will be used including sponsoring mega events like Daytona and getting celebrity endorsements. It also included insurance facility, protection offerings, and featuring of RRoth in Hollywood movies. Movies were specially focused because of young target audience. Dealers will sell the motorcycle all over the country. Official website will give complete info rmation about the product including financing options.Planned services include customization options, club memberships and dealer training program. Financing option will ensure the customer from lower income group. Thorr is performing much better after the implementation of all the recommendations. Now, young people are opting for the new product enhancing company’s market position as well as sales. Phase III: Thundering Success? Phase III includes plotting of CruiserThorr based on market research. It will be plotted on a perceptual map. Characteristics of CruiserThorr relevant to RRoth will be chosen and then RRoth will be plotted on perceptual map based on those attributes.A comprehensive survey was conducted and people were asked about both productions of Thorr Motorcycles Inc. Three hundred fifty people from age 25-55 were surveyed and perceptual map was plotted based on their feedback. Research for CruiserThorr showed that around 37% people planned to spend $13000 to $15 000 on a motorcycle in near future. Around 57% people liked financing and customization options as it not only catered to those with little money, it also attracted people with extra money who wanted something better. Forty-five percent voted that dealership training is important for them.Service enhancements were demanded by 38% people. They were asked if all the services provided by Thorr are satisfactory and 25% replied with â€Å"strongly disagree†. After analyzing this data, lifestyle image factor was escalated to level 9 while price, quality engineering, and service offerings were changed to five, eight and seven respectively. Positive feedback confirmed that we are heading in the right direction. Positioning on perceptual map was corrected accordingly. Price attribute for RRoth was placed at level 8 and lifestyle image at level 9.Quality engineering stood at 8 while cool was also given an 8. Results from survey show that Cool and Price parameters were rightly placed at 8 and 8. As for lifestyle image and quality engineering, they needed to be revamped. Lifestyle image attribute was lowered to a 7 instead of already planned 9. It was done because of existing high image of Thorr. Quality engineering was also lowered at 7 rather than 8 because, although customers rated it high, they had positive views about its fuel-efficient engine. Relationship between Differentiation and PositioningPositioning and differentiation both are necessary for the success of a product. A product cannot be a Hit if any of these is missing. If a product is positioning accurately but does not differentiate itself from others then it will not become a leader. Similarly, if a product is very well differentiated from its competitors, but has not positioned itself accurately, it will also fail. Thus, it is imperative for a company that is planning to be the market leader, to not only introduce a unique product but projects it as a unique product as well.Repositioning in case of Thorr was inevitable because sales were decreeing and there was no option left. They repositioned and targeted a younger market to get the much-needed growth a good spark. Product life changes were being experienced and CruiserThorr was in declining phase. Something new was needed to keep the company in growth phase. Introduction of RRoth was great as it benefited the company in two ways; loyal customers did not leave CruiserThorr and stayed and secondly, new market was found that helped the company earn desired profits.Two products being offered at the same time gives the choice to the customers. They can choose any product that meets their requirements of style, fuel consumption or engine power etc. As for the differentiation, or uniqueness, the company has many ways in which it can differentiate its products. It can be price based, service based, or delivery options based. A common challenge in keeping both the differentiation and positioning is that the company must ensure incr eased sales along with company growth. Thorr should position its new motorcycle so that it attracts the young generation.After that, an aggressive marketing campaign should be launched to lure the target market into buying the motorcycle. The Effect of the Product Life Cycle on Marketing Marketing styles and techniques constantly change with the change in product lifecycles. Customer desires, wants and needs of customers keep on changing and so does the marketing scheme. For the same reason, marketers are always presenting their ideas in new and novel ways. Success of a product is always affected by the change in product lifecycle and it is the job of a marketer to show, through marketing plan, how to revitalize the product perception.Best way to do it is through repositioning of the product lifecycle. Product positioning is essentially how a customer feels when he goes out for buying a motorcycle. The Effect of the Product Life Cycle on Thorr Marketing plan should always be based o n the position of product in the product lifecycle. At this moment, CruiserThorr is almost on the verge of leaving maturity and entering decline phase. It would be very difficult to stop the decline of CruiserThorr. RRoth on the other hand is still in the introductory stage. ‘Thorr should know about the positioning of its products  according to the product lifecycle, only then will it be able to anticipate whether it is going to retain market position or need a new target market. Thorr faced a critical situation when it was time for differentiating and positioning of both its products but marketing research solved the issue in no time. Marketing research is vital to any company’s success and the data collected through the research should be used in decision-making. Data collected from surveys and marketing research can be used to produce perceptual map. This map will help in development of marketing plan.Opportunities also can be identified, through the perceptual map , and then they can be taken advantage of by acting accordingly. Thorr Motorcycles has designed a more redefined marketing strategy based on market research and perceptual maps. This hard work has put Thorr back on the right track of profitability and success. Creation of a marketing plan, according to research and conceptual maps, shows how a product can be repositioned in customer’s minds. This will not only change the overall image of the product but will also bring in profits.

Blaine Kitchenware Inc. Essay

To review Blaine Kitchenware Inc.’s (BKI) current debt, equity and leverage levels with respect to the highly advisable repurchase of 14 million shares of stock at $18.50 per share and the related, necessary financing. BKI is currently highly over-liquid and under-levered. The firm can anticipate elevated tax rates due to the lack of debt held. BKI has also experienced falling earnings per share (EPS) due to the over issuing of stock. Similarly the large quantity of outstanding shares of stock has led to below average returns to shareholders and a return on equity (ROE) below the competitors’ ROEs. BKI can offset these downward trends by increasing leverage—i.e. increasing debt—and reversing the dilutive acquisitions. BKI is highly recommended to obtain a 25 year loan of $50 million at 6.75% with which to repurchase 14 million of its outstanding shares of stock at the price of $18.50 per share, $2.25 above current stock price. Balance Sheet Impact As shown below, under the appendix, the pro forma balance sheet demonstrates forecasted values if BKI continues without action to increase leverage and decrease outstanding stock. BKI can expect to have $ 510,624,920.99 in stockholders’ equity and $ 96,011,793.33 in cash and cash equivalents on which BKI will be liable at a 40% tax rate, significantly higher than previous fiscal years. Based on trends from 2004-2006, BKI can predict increases in current asset accounts and marginal decreases in fixed asset accounts. Without the pursuit of repurchase and increased debt, BKI’s current liabilities accounts will also experience marginal increases while other liabilities and deferred taxes decrease and long term debt remains at zero. Furthermore, before the repurchase of stock, BKI’s equity accounts may continue to increase. Applying the repurchase strategy to calculated three year trends, BKI’s forecasted balance sheet accounts have significantly lower cash and cash equivalent account, increased market securities, accounts receivables, inventory, and other current assets accounts. Fixed assets are expected to decrease based on three year trends while current liabilities increase. The repurchase will require financing which will be attained through a 25 year fixed rate loan of 50 million. At the end of the first year term, BKI will have long term debt of 50 million minus first year principal component of $819,345.59 equaling $ 49,180,654.41. Other liabilities and deferred taxes however, may decrease marginally. In addition, with the repurchase of 14 million shares, stockholders’ equity is expected to decrease to $ 251,624,920.99 from $488,363,000.00 in 2006. Income Statement Impact Three year trends suggest BKI will have increased revenue, increased cost of goods sold, thus elevated gross profits, rising selling, general, and administrative costs, and decreased depreciation and amortization expenses. Overall, trends indicate earnings before interest and taxes may be higher than 2006 EBIT. Without the stock repurchase strategy, BKI may experience tax expense of $ 34,922,882.71 as opposed to tax expense amounting to $ 29,355,346.62 (calculated using 2007 federal income tax brackets as shown under appendix below) if BKI undergoes the stock repurchase strategy. Without undergoing the stock repurchase plan, BKI will have no interest expense and net income of $ 52,384,324.06. BKI will have dividend expense of $29,230,740.00. By undergoing the stock repurchase, BKI will earn net income of $54,576,860.15 which takes into account the interest expense of $3,375,000.00 associated with the loan to finance the stock repurchase. Impact on financial ratios Operating performance impact ROE: BKI’s return on equity ratio currently below average and below competitors’ will continue to drop based on the firm’s performance trends in the last three years to a 10% level. The anticipated ROE with the stock repurchase plan is 22%, third highest ROE, and while not quite above the industry average, sufficiently above the industry median. EPS: Earnings per share is expected to increase to $1.21 with the stock repurchase plan while if the plan is forgone, BKI can anticipate earning a mere $0.89 per share outstanding. An EPS of $0.89 is lower than the firm’s historical EPS and unappealing to future investors. Leverage: Leverage will increase overall after the stock repurchase and withdrawal of the $50 million bank loan. As shown below, debt ratio increases with the addition of the long term debt which drives up total liabilities with respect to total assets. Long term debt to total capitalization increases as well as debt to equity since BKI will have a long term debt significantly higher than its stockholders’ equity suggesting long term debt is used for permanent financing. Interest Coverage: After the stock repurchase, BKI can cover its interest expense over 20 times with the operating profit earned based on the times interest earned ratio. Expected Cost of Financial Distress BKI may have concerns with financial distress and guaranteeing that all operational costs are covered when leverage is increased. The cost of financial distress for BKI is determined by subtracting the BKI’s weighted cost of debt, 5.22% from the the rate of interest paid by firms that are not in financial distress in the same industry, based on Moody’s AAA rating is 5.88%. This results in a 0.66% cost of financial distress or $100,452,019.96 after the stock repurchase and $ 67,992,788.05 before the stock repurchase.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Psychological Profile of Elvis Presley

Analysis of Elvis Presley Deborah Cantin Colorado Technical University Partially Resubmitted From Phases 1, 2, 3, 4 IPs Abstract This paper covers a brief biographical and psychological profile that explores the subject’s childhood, work, personal life, lifetime accomplishments, and philosophy. In addition, I will discuss his inner perspectives using the Cognitive Perspective to describe the two aspects of Mr. Presley’s behavior. I will also discuss his MBTI ® Type along with examples to explain my interpretation.His Psychosocial developmental stages examined through his Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence, and Adult hood. We examine these stages using Erick Erickson’s work. His youth compared to Kohlberg’s work on Moral Reasoning through adulthood. My subject died so this analysis ends at age 50. Another area of analysis is his strong desire to achieve success and how he handled getting his needs met. What seemed to inspire Elvis towards achieving what he h ad in life? Analysis of Elvis Presley I decided to choose Elvis Aaron Presley, as my subject for this Individual Project.I chose him as my subject, to help comprehend his dynamic personality. It is my intention to investigate Mr. Presley’s biological nature along with how the loss of his twin brother deeply affected his character development. Another key factor to consider is how the passing of his mother contributed enormously to whom and what Elvis Aaron Presley eventually became later in life. In my opinion, he was tremendously talented and more respected than any star today. Elvis Presley is a living legend who brought to life the Rock n Roll era. Part I – Case Study Mr.Elvis Aaron Presley was born on January 8, 1935 in Tupelo, Mississippi. His parents Vernon and Gladys Presley were a poor family. He had a twin brother named Jesse Garon, who was stillborn, (Elvis Presley, 2012). Gladys doted on her only living boy, and he loved her too. The emotional bond between t hem ran deep. Elvis loved and adored her. She was everything to him, and he became emotionally attached to his mother. His parents raised him in a warm nurturing environment. Since they were extremely poor, his father moved the family to wherever there was work.Gladys Presley raised Elvis in a God fearing close-knit family; they attended church and sang in the choir. When he was 10 years old, his father bought him a guitar. He learned how to play guitar then entered and won a talent contest. After graduating from Humes High School, he worked several odd jobs. Later on, he cut his first demo disc at Sun Studio. Mr. Sam Phillips took an interest in him and gave Elvis his first real break in the music business. Elvis’ first hit single was â€Å"That’s All Right†. He sang this song in tribute to his mother Gladys, who he dearly loved and cherished.Elvis’ personal life, filled with sorrow, began at his birth. The loss of his twin brother, Jesse appears to have added to this sorrow. Mr. Presley had a natural talent for music, and an independent spirit. All of his life, he searched for love and compassion. His solace seemed to be in music. He embraced his talent, as a way of reaching out to people. When Elvis picked-up his guitar and performed his songs, his whole personality changed. Teenagers followed Elvis in crowds. This was due to his southern charm and handsome appearance. When Elvis began to sing his hips would follow suit.He later explained that his hips were something that he could not control. The adults considered these movements sexually suggestive to young women. The television cameras only showed Elvis’ figure singing from the waist up on the Ed Sullivan Show. His lifetime accomplishments included some gold and platinum records. During Elvis’ lifetime, he starred in 31 movies. Some of his more popular songs are Jail House Rock, Love Me Tender and Suspicion Minds. According to (Elvis Presley, 2012), â€Å"Elvis had no less than 149 songs appear on Billboard’s Hot 100 Pop Chart†.His music is popular today, and demonstrated through generations of teenagers, speaks to his popularity. Elvis loved his Graceland home. His gravesite located in the Meditation Garden on Graceland’s grounds. The Meditation Garden is fitting for the King’s final resting place. It is here that Elvis loved to meditate and contemplate his spiritual side. Graceland draws millions of tourists each year from all over the World. Elvis’ beliefs demonstrated that he loved people. He gave expensive gifts to his staff and loved ones, such as cars and homes. His spiritual beliefs stayed with him throughout his life.Elvis constantly searched, for the meaning of life and truth. This quest for knowledge inspired him to read several books, and earnestly seek out spiritual mentors. Gospel music played a large role in developing Elvis’ passion for music and spirituality. Every rehearsal session began and ended with a Gospel song or two. â€Å"Cognitive Psychology revolves around the notion that if we need to know what makes people tick; then figure out which processes are going on in their minds. Psychologist theorized, from this study, that cognition is a mental act or process by which information exists, (McLeod, 2012)†.Erik Erickson believed that people develop in the context of their environments, with the forces of society exerting strong influences on the social world of people in all places of the development, (Board, 2012, pp. 95, 96). The psychobiography of Elvis directly relates to the different stages of Erickson’s cognitive theory, which includes distinct stages like infancy, pre childhood, post childhood, schooling, teenage, initial adulthood, adulthood and old age. In Elvis’ case, his mother raised him in an Assembly of God religious family. He and his parents attended church and sang in the choir.When he was 10 years old (play time acco rding to Erikson’s model), his father bought him a guitar. He learned how to play guitar then entered and won a talent contest. This behavior directly relates to the Initiative vs. Guilt theory, described by Erikson’s model. Later, he cut his first demo at Sun Studio. Mr. Sam Phillips took an interest in Elvis and gave him his first break in the music business. Elvis’ first hit single was â€Å"That’s All Right. † He sang this song in tribute to his mother Gladys, who he dearly loved and cherished. This stage described as the Industry vs.Inferiority in Erikson’s theory. During the adolescent age, Elvis appeared to be a person with an independent spirit. He started searching for love and compassion from people, and he became involved with people of all ages through his music. On stage, Elvis performed with stored up passion, and found that he had charm with which he attracted millions of teenagers and other fans. Elvis knew that he had good l ooks, and that was the focal point of his connectivity with his fans. Kohlberg describes this stage as moral reasoning. In this phase, the social rules govern an individual’s perspective on morality.The In the moral acts stage, the adolescent performs to please others and this was the case with Elvis, who used to sing songs to please his fans. Kohlberg maintains that most adults pass through this stage of thinking. An individual’s morals and behaviors determined by peer acceptance. This type of behavior may be good or lead to bad behavior to gain acceptance, and continues through adulthood. Elvis was a person who was a master of all traits. He sold record-breaking copies of his albums. He was a recognized star on the silver screen.He worked in major film projects, and he was the guest on several television shows. Elvis sung 149 songs and some of them remained for eighty weeks in the Top song lists, and topped the billboard. Elvis’s trophy room filled with awards in gold and platinum and â€Å"Norway, Yugoslavia, Japan, Australia, South Africa, England, Sweden, Germany, France, Canada, Belgium, and The Netherlands†, were some of the awards received from several countries to Elvis, (Enterprises, E. P, 2012)†. Maslow’s opinion also ties into Elvis’ need for love and trust. Elvis satisfied this requirement through his many fans.I have satisfied this requirement by accepting the fact that it will never happen. Perfectionism demanded stricter and more intense perceived performance levels. Later in his adulthood, he probably realized this was unrealistic. All of these theories directly show that Elvis could not control his rise to fame. His fear caused him to seek peace and security in women and drugs. Elvis sought comfort and unconditional love. He married Priscilla with the hope of having a fairy-tale marriage. Later, he found an unconditional relationship with his daughter, Lisa Marie. In both cases, he ended up more alone than ever.Elvis’s achievements described by the McClelland’s theory of achievements, states that human behavior is described by three needs- Need for Power, Achievement, and Affiliation. In Mr. Presley’s case, his need for power and acceptance played an important role. The need for integration demonstrated through the social interests of Elvis. The need for action arises in people who are above-average performers. In this instance, he was an above-average performer, so he had a powerful desire to win by better performances, (Elvis Presley, 2012). Elvis handled his needs by connecting with people through his music.This provided the pleasure of his call for acceptance, need for achievement, and his motivational need. Elvis was addicted to sex and drugs. These addictions caused him to seek out more and more ways to satisfy his need for affection and confidence. As his fame grew, the need for privacy and trust became foremost in his make-believe world. Parano ia engulfed him, and he began to develop a need for security. He formed and hired his own Memphis Mafia to meet this need. The use of illegal and prescription drugs became a necessity due to his exhausting routine of late-night rehearsals and elaborate parties.No one could exist in this type of life without the aid of drugs. Elvis took pills to wake-up and go to sleep. Each day was a vicious cycle that led to his addiction to pills. Later in life, he developed obesity and constipation problems that were probably due to his food and drug addictions. I believe that Elvis Presley’s MBTI ® type is Extraverted Sensing Feeling Perceptive (ESFP) (Myers, 2012) . This type of personality is very comfortable in front of audiences and loves to entertain. They are in touch with their feelings and value the needs of others.Elvis Presley demonstrated this type by giving lavish gifts to his friends and staff members. In the songs that he sang to his beloved fans, obviously he needed the l ove and support from them. Elvis was fresh and well ahead of his years in other areas. He was not afraid to break the rules and even create new standards for generations to follow. Elvis loved life and his audience. He provided the inspiration and motivation that rocked a whole generation and generations to come. Elvis Presley was born with natural talents who provided a framework for today’s musicians today; however, fame, sex and drugs, eventually led to his downfall.The death of his beloved mother may have contributed to his demand for approval and security. I often wonder, what would have happened had his mother lived a longer life? Would his life have been changed or remained the same? In essence, he was his own enemy. Fear and isolation probably contributed to his downfall too. Part II – Psychological Conjecture Elvis was an awesome personality. He appeared normal and displayed some abnormal tendencies. Music provided the outlet, for his wandering spirit and zest , for knowledge. When he was performing his music, this met his emotional and social needs.Elvis showed needs of fulfillment, for which he depended on the fans. Elvis had a serious need for perfection. This probably stemmed from his very strict childhood. Elvis provided the motivational role model that showed me, what celebrity status could do to individuals, who could not possibly measure up to their preconceived ideas of success. I grew up with Elvis’ music and looked up to him. It seems that when his fame was burning out, he also gave up hope. His abnormal behavior characterized by his preoccupation with food, sex, and women. He used food for comfort and control.His obsessive desire for love and companionship, ended up in unsuccessful attempts towards happiness. Fame and fortune provided the women and sexual outlets for his pleasure. These only provided fleeting moments of happiness in his life. As his fame grew, his desires eventually overcame his ability to maintain them . Even up to the days before his death, he continued to surround himself with younger women that he could control. Glaucoma and obesity were health obstacles that he could not overcome. â€Å"People must be able to realize human potential. This technique focuses on nity of mind, unaltered states of consciousness, as a means of realizing full human potential, (Hamilton, 2001). This approach focuses on the subject and emphasizes the concept of making choices. Not all behavior is pre-determined. All individuals are unique and have an innate drive to achieve their maximum potential, (McLeod, 2007). One of the disadvantages of this approach is lack of a specific treatment program. Treatment plans proved ineffective in treating severe mental illnesses. Humanism ignores the human unconscious mind. The concept of free will is in opposition to the deterministic laws of science, (McLeod, 2007).Part III – Psychology I have learned that Psychology uses methods that are determined by the uniqueness of people. The environment plays a huge factor in the way a human thinks and learns. An individual’s intelligence level is often, determined by their environment or life experiences. Their family upbringing may provide the motivation to either motivate or demotivate an individual to seek further academic studies or opportunities for advancement. Psychology is very useful in the workplace in counseling situations where behaviors need improvement.Learning the different methods helps the supervisor or co-worker to understand others better. Every workplace has a mixture of different personality types and intelligence levels. This mixture may include Introverts or Extroverts in the work place. There may be natural leaders and followers too. After taking this class, I have discovered that it would take me a lifetime to understand the human psyche. I have visions of endless written case studies and counseling sessions. Writing reports does not top my list of fun activiti es. I have no desire to pursue Psychology as a career choice.This class has taught me to take a good look at my childhood and it was quite painful. I now understand why my mom treated me so badly. It directly relates to the fact that she was a foster child. My mother married at age 17. I was born two years later so she was not mature enough to be a mother. In my adulthood, I have come to realize that I am responsible for my life. My behavior determines what I want to achieve in life. Growing up in a horrible environment only made me more determined to succeed. This culminated in a Perfectionist attitude and overachiever persona.My choice of career field as a Technical Recruiter is a perfect match for my skill sets, intelligence, and emotional abilities. I will apply these lessons in counseling my employees in the workplace. My friends also will benefit from learning these techniques. The best thing that I have learned is how to understand my mother’s behavior and attitude tow ards me. I now realize that I can never measure up to my mother’s unrealistic expectations. The thing that really matters is what I think of myself. Unconditional love only exists with God, because, human beings are fallible and incapable of fulfilling my needs for love and acceptance.My future study plans involve completing my degree program and taking time to enjoy myself, free of unrealistic expectations and demands for my time. This class has taught me to relax and enjoy the unique individual that I have become. Gone is the lonely little child that needed mom’s love and acceptance. I have learned through this class that I have value and worth that can help others to succeed. My strongest desire is to help other people with bad childhoods become successful, despite the challenges ahead. It is true that time does heal all wounds.Forgiveness is difficult, but it does nourish the body and the soul. The mantra is true, until you are able to understand your own psycholog ical profile; it makes it very difficult to understand others. The first step in understanding this mantra is discovering who you are as a person. This is an easy step for me, since I know myself inside and out. My psychological make-up determines what and who I am. It is crucial and sometimes painful to analyze yourself. My MBTI ® is a tool used to determine this for me. The second step is applying the mantra to other people’s personalities.Through this class, I have already started to apply the theories and concepts that I have learned to work and in my personal life. My own behavior is made-up of personal choices and moral decisions. My intelligence level is in a sense, relying on my own internal motivational desires. These directly relate to Maslow’s theory in achieving a balanced life. A lens is something that you look through to examine something. My personality shows that I see a glass, as half full. There is always a solution to any problem. Sometimes, it tak es a long time to find solutions, but they are out there.I am an optimistic person that sees life, as a challenge. I have found that learning APA is very hard for me. I do not really understand the reasons why. Perhaps, I am just making it harder than it has to be. I have learned through my lenses that life happens. Sometimes, I see the world, as moving too fast. There are times that I do not always see what is in front of me. When these moments occur, I slow down and examine the situation. Nine times out of ten, the solution was right in front of me! Putting on my psychological lens using Maslow’s theory helps me to keep my life balanced.It is vital to have a healthy balance between wants and needs. My needs are important to me. Happiness is determined upon how I look at life in general. My spouse is not responsible for making me happy. Joy and happiness are fleeting moments that depend upon circumstances. Love is a choice and I decision. I make this choice every day in my m arriage. This thought process, keeps my marriage strong. Through the Humanistic lens, I am responsible for my own behavior. My parents are not responsible for my behavior or choice in life. I must take responsibility for my own actions.Even though, my childhood was a nightmare, I have changed the ways I view my mother and father. This type of upbringing, only served to make me an independent person. Failure is not an option. Survival is my primary behavior. It is true, only the strong make it through a horrible childhood. This class had taught me to see other people in a new light. The different personality types help me to understand why people behave the way they do. I have used the theories that I have learned at work and in my personal life. Psychology is a very complex field, and I realize that it takes a lifetime o understand, all of the different spectrums. References Bacon, A. (n. d. ). Kohlberg's model. Retrieved March 08, 2012, from Developmental Psychology/Cognitive Devel opment Mind 2 Matters: http://www. ablongman. com/html/mindmatters2/html/m7/m717. html Board, B. (2010). Introduction to psychology. (1st ed. ). [Electronic Version]. Retrieved from http://campus. ctuonline. edu Elvis Presley. (2012). Elvis Presley. Retrieved March 08, 2012, from Biography. com: http://www. biography. com/people/elvis-presley-9446466 Enterprises, E. P. (2012). About the king.Retrieved March 08, 2012, from http://www. elvis. com/about-the-king/achievements. aspx Erickson, E. J. (2012). Erikson's psychosocial development theory. Retrieved March 08, 2012, from Self/Personal Development: http://www. businessballs. com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory. htm Hamilton, K. (2001). Introduction to psychology. Retrieved March 17, 2012, from Introduction to psychology: http://webhome. idirect. com/~kehamilt/psy1. html> Hartman, M. (2012). The think tank. Retrieved March 08, 2012, from The University of Arizona The Think Tank: http://thinktank. arizona. du/resources/selfassesmen t/learning_style McLeod, S. (2007). Psychology perspectives. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from Simple Psychology: http://www. simplypsychology. org/cognitive. html Myers, B. (2012). My MBTI ® personality types. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from Myers Briggs Foundation: http://www. myersbriggs. org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/the-16-mbti-types. asp Warrilow, S. (2012). Maslow theory of motivation. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from Strategies for managing change: http://www. strategies-for-managing- change. com/maslow-theory-of-motivation. html

Monday, July 29, 2019

The Importance Of Providing A Quality-Learning Environment Essay

The Importance Of Providing A Quality-Learning Environment - Essay Example st motivating feature about her is that she is able to orient herself precisely in her classroom, meaning that she can develop knowledge and skills to enable her to pursue her studies further. Underlying concepts and principles associated with working with people MDVI When working with people with such impairments, multidisciplinary teams such as teachers need to consider several principles such as demonstrating a number of academic studies and writing skills that are most consistent to their physical challenge. Like in Sarah’s case, there should be a way to demonstrate an ability to relate a precise approach to the acquisition of new skills that will benefit her in respect to intervention and support strategies (Lee & MacWilliam, 2002). It is important to reflect upon several specialized practical and personal skills connected to mobility, independence, and orientation of different approaches used when working with people with MDVI. However, it is also recommended that one un derstands the ethical principles as they apply to dealing with this group of people. The skills taught should be of good quality and be transferable to wider fields of the context. There must be planning techniques and systems that acknowledge that MDVI individuals deserve better than just being relegated to teacher planning systems that do not consider personal contextual issues in their lives. It should be considered that young MDVI learners have numerous barriers to battle without educators putting more effort in their daily learning. This is the reason why teachers should set a goal to provide a cool learning environment by planning on a flexible individualized system of educating the learners. It helps to enhance the participation of an MDVI individual in learning since it helps the person... Working with a child or individual with multiple disabilities and visual impairments is not as easy as working with a normal person. Like in Sarah’s case, she has coloboma in her right eye and microphthalmia in her left but has a low hearing ability, that is why she uses Makaton to communicate. Students with related disabilities also need special systems such as   In this sense, some of these students come from poor backgrounds and may not afford such implements. This makes learning difficult since they cannot do without them. Further, educators, therapists, and fellow students need to use such tools in order to communicate to them, which may not be so easy. Impairments vary from child to child, and it may be a challenge to know how each child communicates his or her feelings. Failing to be understood, such children may lose motivation and this might affect their learning outcomes.Sarah needs assistance to take in her meals. Other students with multiple disabilities will as well require special equipment or help with feeding. Such assistive technologies like environmental control devices and adapted cups and spoons should be provided to motivate their eating skills.  Teachers sometimes find it hard to take care of such students, so they have to use many opportunities and examples to put in practice functional skills like self-feeding and dressing, within natural, meaningful, and relevant contexts of their daily learning.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Discussion Question Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4

Discussion Question - Coursework Example The recording is done at lower of the production costs, purchasing cost of the value of the market of the organization’s inventory. The assertion that lower cost method is a form or example of the principle of conservatism means that the method is a form or an approach of risk averse. The method uses two boundaries which enable the investors to identify the cost and profit attained in the inventory. The method enables the investors to trace the loss or the item which brings about loss in the inventory (Maynard 32). The service life of an asset is defined as the period of time in which an asset remains in use or is able to be used for the process of production. The asset may have different owners during the service life. In estimating the service life of an asset and activity based depression an organization can use different estimates like, industry practices, judgmental estimate, engineering estimates, statistical methods and past experience. Depreciation expenses is declared and calculated each year using accounting methods. The expenses lowers the balance sheet value, creates a tax saving and lowers the reported income of an organization. After the end of depression life, the asset is regarded to be fully expensed or fully depreciated (Maynard

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Effects Of Society On The Development Of A Homosexual Research Paper

Effects Of Society On The Development Of A Homosexual - Research Paper Example However, the general attitude that the society has toward gay men or lesbian women continues to be negative. Most homosexual individuals do not get the support or acceptance that an individual of regular sexual orientation would get. This perhaps is the reason why most homosexual individuals are subject to a high degree of trauma and mental stress in the process of accepting and living with their sexual orientation. Majority of society believes that homosexuality is a choice, causing them to be judgmental toward those who experience same sex attractions. This paper discusses the effects of society on the development of a homosexual, analyzing the problems faced by them through different stages of life. In the beginning stages of life or during childhood, there are no traces or hints that would reveal sexual orientation, meaning it would simply not make sense to try and analyze the emotions and feelings experienced by a homosexual in the stages of childhood. Studies on the causes of homosexuality have not shown any connection between sexual orientation and history of sexual abuse. This would rule out the possibility that sexual abuse in early ages could be accounted in the process of understanding the causes of homosexuality, thereby making an analysis of the childhood face unnecessary and rather pointless. Sexual orientation would not be evident, nor will it be talked of or noticed at such an early age. The individuals would not realize it until later, while some others even live in conflict with their sexual orientation, unable to accept it or admit it. The stage where the individuals begin to feel or rather realize that there might be some difference in how they regard themselve s as a sexual being or the attraction that they feel towards a person is early adolescence. It is in this stage that slight changes occur in their emotions and feelings when compared to those who are heterosexual or straight. By this time however, the society has

Friday, July 26, 2019

Media and Religion in Conflict Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Media and Religion in Conflict - Essay Example serious issues, news of other areas like entertainment, spiritual or religious etc are primarily targeted for the common man who can relax and rejuvenate with the information. I therefore, disagree with slinger’s assertion. Religion is intrinsic part of one’s life and is primarily used as a guideline for leading a moral and ethical life. Slinger’s claim that television has subverted the value system of contemporary society is biased not because as Postman (1987) says that it redefines the truth but mainly due to the fact that but for the television, world would not have known about the 9/11 catastrophe or quickly brought help to the victims of natural disasters from all corners of the world and habilitate them in the shortest possible time. The television news, howsoever gross they may be, nevertheless inform public about what is going on different part of the world. Newman (1996) says that some Christians are of the view that selective religious news should be broadcast. Their major fear is that television distorts news so how will one know if the selective news is correct? There are wide variety of channels that show all kind of shows, some may be offensive but then it becomes one’s choice to see it or not. One can exercise one’s choice according to one’s religious guidelines. In fact, television becomes one of the best critics to test one’s sincerity in one’s religion. If the person can be swayed by the images or content of the television, then religion plays not so significant role in his/her life. Television is the mirror of society and reflects its values and hence, cannot be antithetical to religious

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Health history and discharge. (Alterations in Pulmonary and Kidney Essay

Health history and discharge. (Alterations in Pulmonary and Kidney Function) - Essay Example This has caused her health to decline significantly as evidence by her steep loss of weight within a short time. Though Sallie has most of the medicine she is required to take. The visit revealed that she was missing crucial medicine which she only got some time back. As this medicine was also crucial for her recovery, the absence of it could show why her state of health was deteriorating over time. Sallie lacks somebody to take care of her at home. To ensure she eats well and takes her medication as and when it is to be taken. Her daughter works long hours so is unable to do this. This problem is evidenced by her missing some important medication that she ought to have had from the beginning. Sallie is lonely in her house where she lives alone, her daughter, Thelma Jean is a full-time employee in town and rarely visits. She also misses her late husband who she describes as a jolly man who used to love and make her


WILL THE NEW ARCHITECTURAL ICONS CARRY THE SAME INTRINSIC ROLE IN DEFINING CITIES - Essay Example 11-12, 2007) Moreover, since antiquity until present, humans have advanced significantly in every sector, and so, humans have achieved pinnacle by the advancement in architectural designs, which can be noted by observing existing modern architectural icons, as well as, designs and plans of future architectural icons that are being built in different parts of the globe. It is observed that technology has become an important tool of humans, which is being used intellectually and imaginatively by ingenious and inspiring architects around the globe. As time is passing by, more and more improvement is being made in technological sector, as well as, in the architectural sector. On the other hand, environmental resources are reducing rapidly due to excessive utilization of humans for their personal purposes. (Ford, pp. 34-37, 2004) In this regard, it is a debatable topic whether new architectural icons will be able to carry the same intrinsic and natural role that was carried by historical architecture in the absence of technological tools and tactics. Studies have indicated that a number of factors are affecting the architectural discourse, such as technology, economy, and especially, culture. All these factors are shaping the contemporary modes and designs of architectural outcomes, and this paper will discuss whether new architectural icons that will be outcome of these factors will be able to acquire an intrinsic value, or natural relation will eliminate in few years. Experts have indicated that culture plays a significant role in the creation of any architectural icon, as it facilitates the specific place in expressing its cultural identity to other parts of the globe. In this regard, it is very essential for an architect to relate with the historical architectural icons, in order to continue the relation according to some experts. On the other hand, some other experts argue that it is not essential to relate with historical architectural icons, and a new

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Project management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 7

Project management - Essay Example Quality assurance includes two major elements; the first is quality control examination which comprises the examination of the physical characteristics of the structure, system, material, component, part, and subsequent comparison with the acceptable standards associated with those examinations (Arditi & Gunaydin, 1997). The second element of quality assurance is termed as quality administration. This is defined as the management and documentation which assures that the specified quality control examinations were carried out. In general, the contractor’s definition is preferred by the project organization since it defines the vehicles by which all project requirements are to be determined and identified. The word quality has different meanings in different circumstance; the quality of a product may have greater or lesser significance depending on the need and requirement of the user. Thus, quality is the degree to which a product meets the requirement of the customer. On the o ther hand, Quality control includes all the efforts to manage quality and maintain assurance of continued high quality of a product or service. Thus quality control conveys an idea about determining and maintaining that quality of product or service which will satisfy the consumer by its performance, cost and delivery. It is important to understand the difference between quality assurance and quality control. Quality control is used to prove that deliverables are of recognized quality, and that they are complete and right. Quality assurance, however, refers to the procedure used to create deliverables and can be done by a manager, client or even a third party. Also, Quality assurance is based on the process approach. Quality monitoring and assurance ensures that processes and systems are developed in a manner that deliverables are of superior quality. This process is intended to

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Individual Write-Up Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Individual Write-Up - Essay Example e going to visit Africa and more particularly Kenya, s as to go and watch the wild beast migration, based on what I have heard regarding Africa I prepared myself for the Stone Age life. Two days before our departure I had already parked all the things that I thought was necessary. I carried some of the most essential things, such as toothpaste, soap, spotlights, and camp knifes. My dad informed me of certain things like soap that could be bought when we got to Africa, but I could not dare leave my â€Å"Essential package† as I was not sure even if there were shops there. The day finally came, and we left for Africa, the fight took about 12 hours, as we had to make a stopover in Amsterdam. All through the flight, my mind was on the types of houses that I was going not just to see but live in. when the pilot announced the plane’s arrival in an hour, I was very excited because I was going to experience Africa for the very first time. The plane reached the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport and t my surprise there were no animals anywhere in sight all I could see were tall, beautiful houses like the ones back in Canada. Sensing my dismay my dad told me â€Å"I told you†, the animal park that we were supposed to go and see the wild beast migration was known as the Tsavo National Park, which was quite a long distance from Nairobi. I had found out from the internet about the wild beast migration, and I was looking forward to seeing the animals leap into the river and cross to the other side. I tried to anticipate how many animals would make it safely to the other side. To make the experience a unforgettable, my dad had arranged that we travel by train to the park. There are no electric trains in Kenya we had t use the old locomotives, which run on diesel apparently these trains were left by the colonial government decades ago. The trip t the park was full of adventure, the train tracks went through beautiful open country where we were able t see some wild animals

Monday, July 22, 2019

Great Expectation Essay Example for Free

Great Expectation Essay Compare the filming techniques used in Pips first meeting with Miss Havisham with two adaptations of Charles Dickenss Great Expectations  The two film clips that this essay will be based on, and comparing, is a version by Julian Jarrold which appeared on TV screens in 1999 and a much older cinema appearance by David Lean from 1946. The first noticeable difference is that the earlier film is played in black and white and therefore has certain lighting limitations and, as a result of technological disadvantages, has limited camera shot availability. However, there are a number of useful factors available for analysis. Both films attempt to build up a sense of mystery and increasing tension all the way through the scenes and the task in hand is to focus in on all the different types of filming techniques used to do so. On the whole, the 1999 version is darker than the 1946 edition and this increases the tension factor. Each scene takes us from Pip entering Miss Havishams room to when he leaves and incorporates all of the insults and belittling from Miss Havisham and Estella, although even this is played differently in the two films; David Lean makes very obvious insults as though Estella is actually telling him he is lower than her yet in Jarrolds version Estella either insults Pip to Miss Havisham or to herself in an undertone. There are six main techniques used by each director which this essay will analyse, they are: shot types and framing-how each camera shot affects the mood of the scene, camera angles and lens movement-how the camera is positioned and what bearing that has on the scene, editing, music and sound effects-the backing sounds and its effect on the viewer, costumes-what each actor is wearing and what it does for the characters personality/appearance, lighting and visual effects-how the light and dark areas of the screen portray different ideas. Firstly, there are a few similarities between both scenes Shot types and framing/Camera angles and lens movements/Editing. The first is that both incorporate a long shot as Pip enters to show the huge room in front of him and show that this room really is intimidating as Pip looks tiny compared to the huge open space ahead. Secondly, both films show Pips reaction as a close up shot after the insults from Estella, this gives the viewer a real sense of pity for Pip and shows us what exactly is going through his mind at the time. The final similarity is as the game of cards unfolds, both films fade into the game to show a passing of time and both use an extreme close up to show us what is happening and, Miss Havisham is sat high on a chair in the middle, with Pip and Estella on the floor either side, with a medium shot, making Miss Havisham look very dominant and the children look almost patronised. The 1999 version has a lengthy amount of time when Pip is wondering around the room looking at certain objects, building up mystery and tension, which Jarrold misses out and skips from Pip entering straight to his conversation with Miss Havisham. This added section has a mixture of medium close ups, close ups and extreme close ups, but all the way through the shots are positioned a bit higher than Pip so it gives the audience the idea that somebody has a watchful eye on him, and this, to a certain extent, is almost creepy, certainly builds up mystery and also borderlines on scary. For example, when Pip is walking past the dummies the camera is high up so it is as though the viewers are looking through Miss Havishams eyes. The other main camera uses are when Pip sees Miss Havisham in the mirror, she looks virtually ghost like and it is almost scary, but just before she appears, its looks again as though he is being watched, and as Miss Havisham waves her arm to tell Pip to play, there is a close up of her arm to show her dominance and shortly after a close up of Pips face to show the confused reaction. This section of the scene is very clever camera work by Jarrold, and really does freak the audience out. Both films use shot types, framing, camera angles, lens movement and editing differently, but there a number of specific differences between the two. When the two films join back up, there are many different camera uses and consequences of such. In the 1946 version, there is a long shot as Pip walks up to Miss Havisham and a medium close up as they talk to one-another and as Pip advances further, the camera moves in an arc to keep him and Miss Havisham on the picture at the same time. When they are closer, it allows an even closer shot than before of their faces and therefore portrays both expressions and the reactions to each others expressions individually. An addition to this version of Great Expectations is how the camera zooms in on a cobweb covered bible to show the lost faith of Miss Havisham, and explain to the audience that something terrible has happened earlier in her life to make her do so. A two shot of Miss Havisham and Pip is on screen, and, as Estella joins the camera slides horizontally to follow her in. As Estella whispers in Miss Havishams ear there is a two shot to portray Miss Havishams expression. When Miss Havisham asks Pip his opinion of Estella he is made to whisper it in her ear but as he does so there is a medium close up showing all three expressions at the same time, i.e. Pips horror as Miss Havisham tells Estella what he has just said and Estellas delight of hearing such approving words. As Pip approaches the gate to go home, there is another fade in to show more time has passed by. This can be compared with the 1999 version which has a much briefer conversation between Pip and Miss Havisham as much time is spent when Pip walks around, but, when Pip is whispering about Estella, the camera zooms in on Estellas face to show her reaction after being praised by Pip. Finally, when Pip and Miss Havisham are talking, there is a two shot of them to show each reaction as each person says something.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Importance Of Statistics In Scientific Research Philosophy Essay

The Importance Of Statistics In Scientific Research Philosophy Essay Today, we are living in the Information Age. We make many of our decisions, whether we intend to go out to sea to fish, buy a new computer, invest in projects, built a new resort, or even go to war, based on information that we gather. The more information we obtain, how fast we get them and how relevant they are will affect our decisions. However, more important than speed or amount of information is whether the information we got is real or reflects the truth or has been interpreted correctly. Unfortunatley, for various reasons, there are many information out there that is false, half-truths, misinterpreted or just made up, either intentionally or unintentionally. So how do we know that a certain information that we obtain is the truth? Is it the truth because Mr. X said so? Can we trust his words? Who is this Mr. X? Can we believe him just because he is the Prime Minister or President of the United States? How did he obtain this information in the first place? Has he got any ulter ior motive feeding you with this information? So we start to doubt. But if we are going to doubt every information that comes, then we will have a serious problem making our day to day decisions. Science There is a need for some mechanism where information generated from that mechanism has the highest probability of being true. This mechanism is called Science. Science comes from the Latin word scientia which means knowledge. So science is a system or mechanism of aquiring knowledge and is aimed at finding the truth. Scientists are in the business of generating new knowledge and it is important that the new knowledge refect what is true. That is why the scientific community demands that all scientists must possess a high level of integrity and honestly so that results from their research reflects the truth based on the facts gathered. If false information were allowed to be diseminated, in time, nobody will believe in information generated by the scientific community and that will be the end of science. To prevent this from happening, a set of guidelines were put in place to be followed by scientists in their acquisition of knowledge. It is thus very important for for young scientist s to follow the Scientific Method in their research investigations. As scientists, we also need to think scientifically. Our powers of reasoning must lead successfully to the most logical answers and reach reliable conclusions. Scientific thinking is based on three things i.e. the use of empirical evidence, practice logical reasoning and possessing a skeptical attitude. Empirical evidence is evidence that one can see, hear, touch, taste, or smell. It is evidence that others, besides yourself, can experience, and it is repeatable. Empirical evidence is the only type of evidence used by scientists to make decisions and reach sound conclusions. Logic is not an ability that we are born with. It is a skill or discipline that must be learned. Emotional, hopeful, and wishful thinking is more common than logical thinking because they are easier and more cogenial to human nature. Most individuals would rather believe something is true because they feel, hope, or wish it were true, rather than deny their emotions and accept that their beliefs are false. Posses sing a Skeptical Attitude is to constantly question your beliefs and conclusions. Good scientists constantly examine the evidence, arguments and reasons for their beliefs. A skeptic holds beliefs only tentatively, and will willingly discard them if new evidence can prove otherwise. We must have an open mind. Scientific Method Science is about discovering reliable knowledge about nature. Reliable knowledge is knowledge that has a high probability of being true because its veracity has been justified by a reliable method. The Scientific Method is a Process for evaluating knowledge to explain observable events in nature by natural causes without assuming the existence of the supernatural. Scientists use observations and reasoning to propose tentative explanations for natural phenomena, termed hypotheses. Predictions from these hypotheses are then tested by experiments, which should be reproducible. An important aspect of a hypothesis is that it must be falsifiable, i.e. it must be conceivable to prove the hypothesis to be false. Once a hypothesis is repeatedly verified through experiment, it is considered to be a theory and new predictions are based upon it. Scientific methods are means used by scientific communities for building supportable, evidence-based understandings of our natural world. There are four essential elements within a scientific method : Characterizations (quantifications, observations and measurements) Hypotheses (theoretical, hypothetical explanations of observations and measurements) Predictions (reasoning including logical deduction from hypotheses and theories) Experiments (tests of all of the above) A pragmatic scheme of the four above points is sometimes offered as a guideline for proceeding: Define the question Gather literature, information and resources Form your hypothesis Plan the experiment Do the experiment and collect data Analyze the observed data Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypotheses Communicate your results Statistical Analysis A very important component of the Scientific Method is the statistical analysis of your collected data or observations. How you analyse the data, whether done correctly or incorrectly, will ultimately determine the conclusions from your research. Any body who has to collect data, prepare reports, read reports and draw intelligent conclusions from them must have a good understanding of statistics. There is universal acceptance of statistics as an essential tool for all types of research. This has also resulted in an increase in the number and diversity of statistical procedures. Although this diversity indicates the availability of appropriate statistical techniques for most research problems, it also indicates the difficulty of matching the best technique to a specific experiment. Choosing the correct statistical procedure for a given experiment must be based on expertise in statistics and in the subject matter under study. Statistics, like any useful tool, can be misused either deli berately or by well-meaning researchers who know too little about research or statistical concepts and procedures. Why do we need Statistics? Diversity is an intricate property of nature. It is with diversity that life on earth can continue to exist as it allows evolution and adaptation to the ever changing environment on earth. With diversity, there exist variation. Variation occurs everywhere and in almost everything. There is variation in height, weight, colour, smell, etc. Thus for every population, there is variation in physical, chemical and biological properties. As such, before we can say that there is a difference in a particular parameter between two population, we have to take into consideration this variation. We have to show prove that even with the variation that exist within each population for the parameter in question, it is still highly probable that differences exist between the two populations. Statistical procedures were developed to do just that. To take into account the variations before deciding whether we can safely say that the two populations are different. If there is no variation, there will be no need for statistics. Types of Statistics in Marine Science Research There are basically two types of statistics a) Descriptive statistics. Reduction of large masses of raw data to a manageable form e.g. graphs, tables, measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. b) Predictive statistics. The data we collect is almost always a sample of all the data we could have collected, and we want to use it to draw conclusions about the whole population. The ability to make such generalised conclusions, inferring characteristics of the whole from characteristics of the sample lies within the realm of inferential or predictive statistics. In Predictive Statistics, statistical analysis are usually conducted on the sampled evidence or data from which conclusions about the population is drawn. The statistical analysis usually starts with a hypothesis and based on the evidence in the data, the probability of a certain outcome of the hypothesis is determined. Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Testing is a means by which will help us make decisions concerning differences. It is a process of infering from a sample or samples whether or not to accept a certain statement about the population. The statement itself is called the hypothesis. The hypothesis is tested on the basis of evidence contained in the sample or samples. The hypothesis should be the simplest one possible with the least number of unknown factors. It is a prerequisite to the application of a statistical test. General procedure in statistical hypothesis testing. a) Specify a nul hypothesis (H0). The hypothesis of no difference. The hypothesis that nothing out of the ordinary has happened or what is expected to happen according to some standard theory. b) Specify the alternate hypothesis (H1). Example: H0: There is no difference in growth of fishes fed with diet A and diet B. H1: There is a difference in growth of fishes fed with diet A and diet B. H0: The population sampled conforms to the Normal Distribution. H1: The population sampled does not conform to the Normal Distribution. H0: The two samples belong to the same population. H1: The two samples come from different populations. c) Check data. From the data, see which of H0 or H1 is correct. The answer will either be i) Not obvious ii) Obvious iii) Very obvious Only in case i) do you go to do a statistical test. It is neither necessary or useful to do a lot of arithmetic to show something that was obvious before you started. Statistics is not a substitute for common sense. d) Specify the level of significance, . Specify the critical probability level below which H0 will be rejected. It is conventionally taken to be 0.05 or 5% level of significance (or 95% confidence limits) in biological statistics. In statistics, we are testing for differences. We first assume that there is no difference, H0. Then we test for difference, H1. Hence, the level of significance is the maximum probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis ( 5% level of rejecting H0 ) when it is actually correct. = probability of committing a Type I error (i.e. probability of rejecting H0 when it is actually correct). = probability of committing a Type II error (i.e. probability of accepting H0 when it is actually not correct). Null Hypothesis (H0) TRUE FALSE REJECT Type I Error Correct ACCEPT Correct Type II Error It is better to commit a Type II error than a Type I error. We will never know if we have committed a Type I error but then the probability of committing it is specified as or, What is the probability, p, of making the error of rejecting Ho when Ho is actually true ? If p is very low then we reject Ho. If p is high then we had better accept Ho. How low should p be before we reject Ho ? is determined by the level of significance, a, set by us (usually 0.05). e) Calculate the probability, p. Assuming that Ho is correct, calculate the probability, p, (using appropriate statistics) of obtaining results as extreme, or more extreme, than those observed. There are several statistical tests available. In order to select, we consider several properties of the various tests e.g. i) Are the assumptions of these tests valid assumptions in my experiment ? Criticisms on an experiment is often highest due to lack of consideration of the assumptions. ii) The test should be unbiased and consistent. iii) The test should be more efficient in some sense than the other tests. f) Comment. We rarely have enough training or knowledge to thoroughly understand all the possible violations of assumptions inherent in the design and analysis of their research, although they are most surely aware of the hypothesis they are trying to test. Types of Statistical Tests Various types of statistical tests are available. However, we can generally divide them into Parametric and Non-parametric tests. a) Parametric test For making inferences about population parameters by examining sample statistics. Assumes that the variable in question follows (at least approximates) the normal distribution. For interval and ratio scale data. b) Data transformation Generally to normalise data which do not satisfy the above assumption so that they may be analysed using parametric methods. c) Nonparametric test To draw inferences about population, not parameters. Do not require knowlegde about population distribution (distribution free statistics). Fast with less arithmetic but less powerful than parametric tests. For norminal and ordinal scale data. Note that interval and ratio scale data can be converted to ordinal data by ranking. Examples of parametric tests a) Testing differences between two means. 1) Z-test Where population variance, S, is known. 2) Students t-test (One and two samples) Where the estimate s must be used. 3) Paired sample t-test For paired samples. b) Testing differences between a set of sample means. 1) One-way ANOVA. 2) Two-way ANOVA with and without replications. 3) Multi-way ANOVA. 4) Latin-Square. 5) Multiple comparisons. a. Least Significant difference, LSD. b. Tukey Test. c. Student-Newman-Keuls Test. d. New Duncans Multiple Range Test. e. Trend comparisons c) Testing differences between variances. 1) F-test 2) Bartletts test d) Correlation and regression analysis Examples of Non-parametric tests a) Runs test Test for randomness in a linear sequence of nominal data. b) Chi-square Goodness-of-fit test Test or compare observed frequency distribution with predicted/theoretical frequency distribution. c) Homogeneity Chi-square test and Contingency tables Test or compare 2 observed frequency distributions. d) Kolmogorov-Smirnov test Goodness-of-fit test for ordinal scale data. Uses cumulative frequency data rather than Chi-square. Powerful where n is small, Fi is small. e) Mann-Whitney U-test Nonparametric procedure anologous to 2 sample students t-test. f) Wilcoxons paired sample test Nonparametric procedure anologous to paired sample t-test. g) McNemars test Paired sample testing of nominal data. h) Kruskal-Wallis test Nonparametric One-way ANOVA by ranks. i) Freidmans test Nonparametric randomised block design by ranks. j) Spearmans Rank Correlation Nonparametric correlation on ordinal data. Multivariate Statistics Most of the Statistical methods mentioned above are termed as Univariate statistics because they examine only one variable while the other are treated as treatment groups of factors. However, there is an increasing use of Multivariate Analysis where the procedure will examine a number of variables at once largely to detect patterns, relationships and interactions between them. Some of the most commonly used multivariate procedures include: a) Multiple regression and correlation. Where one wishes to establish maximal linear relationships among three or more sets of variables. b) Principal Component Analysis. To reduce the dimensionality of the original data while minimizing loss of information and determining those that account for most of the variation in the population. c) Factor Analysis. Resolve the intercorrelations among variables into their underlying causes. d) Multivariate analysis of variance. To determine if the samples could have been drawn from a single statistical population. e) Discrimant Analysis. To sort the objects into their appropriate populations with minimal error. f) Cluster analysis. To sort previously unpartitioned heterogeneous collection of objects into a series of sets and determine the relation ships between the sets.

Changing Output Voltage of DC †DC Converters

Changing Output Voltage of DC – DC Converters Ben Harper The Purpose of this investigation is to look at the effects of changing various components in a 3 volt to 9 volt DC – DC converter will have on the output voltage. The results collected will be compared to theoretical values in order to find out whether or not they match and if not why. Background DC – DC converters are very important components in many different circuits, they are used in laptops, cars, and cell phones, mainly devices that receive their power from batteries. There are often sub circuits within complex circuits and these sub circuits often require a specific voltage that is different from the voltage that is flowing through the circuit, this is where the DC – DC converter comes in, it is used to either step up or step down the voltage so that the sub circuit can function properly. One other use is to step up the voltage of a battery that is low on power, when batteries become low on power their output voltage can decrease making the circuit unable to function but with a step up DC – DC converter the lowered voltage can be stepped up and increased enough to allow the circuit to continue functioning for longer. This method is much more efficient than using multiple batteries. Ultimately DC – DC converters play various roles in circuit s but they are essential and effective. Research Resistors Resistors are small devices usually made of ceramic that control the amount of current flowing through a circuit. The resistance of resistors are measured in ohms (à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¦) When the resistance of a resistor is high the current is low and when the resistance is low the current is high. Voltage, current and resistance is all connected to one another through Ohm’s law. Ohms law can be stated in words as the current in a resistive circuit is directly proportional to its applied voltage and inversely proportional to its resistance (, 2014). In the form of an equation it can be defined as: Resistors can be found in almost any circuit and play a very important role. Certain components within circuits cannot handle high levels of voltage and will overload and become unusable if too much voltage flows through them, properly placed resistors can stop this from happening. There are many other types of resistors such as variable resistors and foil resistors and potentiometers Capacitors Capacitors are very common components that can be found within most circuits and have multiple uses. These components have the ability to store an electrical charge and then discharge at certain intervals of time. They are used for multiple reasons, one of which is their ability to smooth a current. Having a smooth current can prevent false triggering of sensitive components such as relays. Capacitors are measured in capacitance and this is found using the formula: A capacitor contains only two conductors that are separated by a single insulating material called a dielectric. The dielectric can be one of many different things, plastic, paper, ceramic or air. The two plates can be made of aluminium or a thin film of metal. Electrolytic capacitors have positive and negative leads, this means that they are polarized, the capacitor must be placed the right way around or else the oxide insulator on one of the foils will erode and cause the component to become conductive causing it to conduct large amounts of current which results in the electrolytic fluid boiling, building up pressure and ultimately popping. Non-electrolytic capacitors tend to have a significantly lower capacitance and are normally used to smooth the current in a circuit. Electromagnetic induction coils Electromagnetic induction a process that takes place when a conductor is present in a varying magnetic field or when a conductor is moves through a non-changing magnetic field. These actions cause voltage to be produced across the conductor. This whole process induces an electrical current. The discovery of electromagnetic induction was made by Michael Faraday in 1981 and he is known for the equation named Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. The equation is as follows: Flux is a measurement of how much of a vector field passes perpendicularly through a given area (, 2014). A vector field is a vector quantity that can have different values, an example of a vector field is the water molecules in a river, in this example the vector quantity changes depending on its location. The vector field that present in electromagnetic induction is dependent on multiple things such as location and number of coils. In Faradays law of electromagnetic induction, flux which is represented by the Phi symbol is found using: The voltage (E.M.F.) created in a coil by a changing magnetic field is proportional to rate in which the magnetic flux changed and the number of winding in the coil (Basic Electronics Tutorials, 2014). TL499A IC The TL499A is an integrated circuit (IC) that was created for the purpose of providing adjustable regulated supply voltages, by adding a battery between 1.1 volts and 10 volts, an inductor, a filter capacitor and two resistors the IC can function as a step-up switching regulator. In this specific chip output voltages can vary between 2.9 volts and 30 volts, but this depends on multiple factors such as input voltage, current and resistance. This IC was designed to be a back-up step up switching regulator in the instance of an ac-line failure. The top view of the IC can be seen below in Figure 1. Inside of the IC there is a complex circuit that consists of multiple diodes, transistors, resistors and capacitors. Refer to Figure 2 below for a detailed circuit diagram Transistors Transistors are a form of switch, nearly all circuits will have at least one transistor. There are two main types of transistors, the most common is NPN but there is also PNP. When p-type and n-type materials are placed in contact with each other, the junction behaves very differently than either type of material alone. Specifically, current will flow readily in one direction (forward biased) but not in the other (reverse biased), creating the basic diode. This non-reversing behaviour arises from the nature of the charge transport process in the two types of materials. ((, 2014)). There are all different kinds of transistors that come in different shapes and sizes but they always have three legs. There is the base, the collector and the emitter. The base is responsible for the activation of the transistor, the collector is the positive leg and the emitter is the negative leg. Diodes Diodes are very common components that can be found in many circuits, the function of a diode is to cause electricity to flow in one direction. A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most common kind of diode in modern circuit design is the semiconductor diode, although other diode technologies exist. (, 2014). There are few diodes placed within the DC – DC converter assembled for this investigation but there are multiple diodes found within the TL499A IC. Hypothesis By changing resistors R1 and R2 within the Jaycar DC – DC converter kit the output voltage will vary. An increase in the resistance between these two resistors in parallel will result in an increase in output voltage. Aim The aim of this experiment is to determine whether or not decreasing the voltage of two parallel resistors will increase the output voltage of the entire circuit. By decreasing the resistance the current will increase and therefore allow a higher output voltage from the IC. â€Å"output voltage can be varied from 2.9 V to 30 V by adjusting the input of current which can be changed using the two external resistors† (, 1984). Experimental procedure Method In order to determine the effects that the external resistors, R1 and R2 have on the circuit, they must be replaced with resistors of varying values. Once the resistors have been replaced the circuit must be connected to a power pack and the output voltage must be recorded. This process must be repeated with different resistors until there is a satisfactory amount of data collected. Materials Soldering iron Heat proof mats Resistors Solder Sponge Results Results: Practical The second change made was to R2, it was determined after changing the resistor R1 that the current flowing through the circuit was the variable that directly affected the output voltage of the entire circuit. The lower the output current the higher the output voltage was. Input Voltage Resistance of R1 Resistance of R2 Output Voltage 3 22000 Ohms 27000 Ohms 4.26 Volts 3 15000 Ohms 180000 Ohms 4.94 Volts 3 33000 Ohms 39000 Ohms 5.83 Volts 3 27000 Ohms 180000 Ohms 7.38 Volts 3 33000 Ohms 220000 Ohms 8.95 Volts 3 47000 Ohms 270000 Ohms 11.92 Volts 3 56000 Ohms 560000 Ohms 14.81 Volts Results: Theoretical Input Voltage Resistance of R1 Resistance of R2 R1, R2 Parallel Output Voltage 3 22000 Ohms 27000 Ohms 12122.45 4.51 3 15000 Ohms 180000 Ohms 13846.15 4.97 3 33000 Ohms 39000 Ohms 17875 6.05 3 27000 Ohms 180000 Ohms 23478.26 7.55 3 33000 Ohms 220000 Ohms 28695.65 8.95 3 47000 Ohms 270000 Ohms 38726.59 11.99 3 56000 Ohms 560000 Ohms 50909.09 14.91 The graph above represents the change in resistance as the output voltage increase. Sources of Error There are many different possible sources of error within the procedure that is undertaken during this experiment. The power packs at Albany Creek State High school do not all give out the correct amount of voltage; most multimeters are faulty and can give false readings, and with the resistors being constantly soldered and unsoldered in order to replace them there may be a drop in accuracy due to the board melting a small amount or a soldering joint not being done properly. Any other sources of error would be related to physical factors such as temperature and would have minimal and negligible effect on the final results. Discussion In any situation where more voltage than what is available is needed when DC current is being used, a step up converter is the solution. The circuit that was put together for this experiment can deliver between 4.5 and 20 volts output depending on the input voltage and the configuration of the resistors. Figure 1 contains a diagram of the TL499A power supply IC. Within the IC there is a series and a switching regulator. The switching regulator is responsible for the operation of the step up pulse width modulated DC – DC converter. A single variable frequency oscillator operates a transistor that is a switch between one side of a boost inductor and ground. In Appendix A it can be seen that the end of the inductor is connected to the positive battery output while the other is connected to pin six of the IC, pin six is the collector of the switching transistor. When the transistor turns on current flowing through L1 rapidly increased while it holds energy within the magnetic fiel d of the inductor. The inductor works by producing voltage when a conductor is moving through a magnetic field and when this field collapses it causes all of the electricity that was being stored in the magnetic field to discharge. When the transistor is powered down it turns off and the magnetic field breaks down producing an immediate increase in voltage. This allows the blocking diode to conduct, therefore transporting the voltage from the inductor to the capacitor that serves as an output filter before it carries on to pin 8 of the TL499a. The second transistor creates a section â€Å"of a cycle by cycle current limiting circuit† (, 2014). This current turns off the switching transistor when the current through it reaches a predetermined level (, 2014). The circuit uses a fixed time arrangement to preserve a controlled output voltage in changing load environments, the changing frequency can be as small as a couple kHz but with the highest load and lowest possi ble input voltage, it rises to over 20 kHz. DC voltage applied to pin 1 flows into the output at pin 8 through the transistor. â€Å"The base of Q3 is driven by an error amplifier, which compares a 1.26 volt reference voltage on its non-inverting input with the voltage at pin 2†. (, 1984) The output voltage is determined by the equation: By choosing appropriate values for R1 and R2, the output voltage of the entire circuit can be set for any voltage between 4.5 volts and 20. From the data collected it is clear that they the resistance does increase with resistance of R1 and R2. The data does not completely match the theoretical values and the difference between them varies significantly, this is most likely due to the fact that different power packs were used for some of the of the measurements, it could also be an effect of repeatedly soldering and unsoldering the join where the resisters were placed. The clear increase in voltage with the increase in resistance makes it obvious that the results are supportive of the hypothesis and create a clear pattern that shows the increase of voltage that is relative to the resistance. The results do not go past an output voltage of fifteen therefore the limits have not been tested, it has been stated â€Å"the TL499A has a minimum output of 2.9 and a maximum output of 30 volt s† (, 1984). One possible way of improving the results and increasing the accuracy would be to find an accurate power pack to use on the circuit, another viable option would be to use the same power pack and multimeter for every measurement that is made therefore the results would not be accurate but they would be precise. In order to get accurate results the power pack and multi meter must be tested and it must be made sure that the power pack has the correct output voltage and the multimeter reads the voltage output correctly. Another investigation that this experiment could lead to could be the effect of varying the input voltage to an induction coil. Conclusion In conclusion the results collected from the DC – DC converter ultimately support the hypothesis presented earlier in the report that by changing resistors R1 and R2 within the Jaycar DC – DC converter kit the output voltage will vary. An increase in the resistance between these two resistors in parallel will result in an increase in output voltage. The results corroborate with multiple other theories and laws. This DC – DC converter can be altered by simply changing the resistance of resistors R1 and R2 and this is supported by a suitable amount of both primary and secondary data. Bibliography, (2014). Introduction : Diodes And Rectifiers. [online] Available at: Basic Electronics Tutorials. 2014. Electromagnetic Induction and Faradays Law. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 26 May 2014]. CDS linear, (2014). Linear technology. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Jun. 2014]., (1984). TL499A Datasheet | [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Jun. 2014]. 2014. Ohms law. [online] Available at: Smith/page4.htm [Accessed: 26 May 2014]. 2014. Magnetic Flux. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 26 May 2014]. Jones, A. (2014). How Electromagnetic Induction Creates Current. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Jun. 2014]., (2014). Electromagnetic Induction. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Jun. 2014]., (n.d.). EET 155 Unit 2: Capacitors and Inductors in DC Circuits. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Jun. 2014]., (2014). TL499A | Step-Up (Boost) Converter | Converter (Integrated Switch) | Description parametrics. [online] Available at:

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Risk Management Analysis Essay -- Business Management

This assignment will discuss the theoretical basis of financial risk, because managers need to be aware that financial risk its present in all sectors of activity so that they can run business efficiently and take advantageous investment choices, considering the different types of financial risk relevant to the current economic climate, as well as evaluating the methods available to business for managing, and by observing a case study where risk management has possibly failed. Risk is the doubt about future gains or losses, thus such doubts reveal that some future expectation and their impact cannot be predicted Chorafas (2008). Markowitz cited in Brigham, Gapenski and Ehrhardt (1999), argues that the portfolio theory can get high expected returns on investment with low levels of risk. therefore, risk can be spread and consequently eradicated so does not concern investors, thus the only worrying risk for managers , is the market risk which cannot be eliminated. However, Arnold (2002), suggest that this fails to assert that portfolio risk does not need to be considered, thus resulting with a problem with the theory, because it uses historic data returns to support decision making about potential investments, and as risk is about uncertainty is difficult to calculate future events, therefore this theory may have gaps. Alternatively Brigham et al. (1999), argues that the CAPM model establishes a causal relation between risk and return on assets, where investors have the same expectations about the expected return and there are no transaction costs and taxes. However, Pike and Neale (1999) suggest that some concerns may occur related to the validity of this model because there are transaction costs and taxes which are sources o... ... Hillson, D., & Murray-Webster, R. (2007).  ´Ã‚ ´Understanding and Managing Risk Attitude ´Ã‚ ´. ( 2nd ed.). England: Gower Publishing Limited. Hamada, R. S., Bain, G., & Gerrity, T. P. (1998).  ´Ã‚ ´ Mastering Finance: single-source guide to becoming a master of Finance ´Ã‚ ´. England: Pearson education: Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Neale, B., & McElroy, T. (2004).  ´Ã‚ ´Business Finance: A Value-Based Approach ´Ã‚ ´. England: Pearson Education; Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Pike, R., & Neale, B.(1999). Corporate finance and investment : decisions and strategies. London ; New York : Prentice Hall. Voon-Choony, Yap., Hway-Boon, Ong., Kok-Thim, Chan., & Yueh-Sin, Ang. (2010). European Journal of Economy Finance and Administration Science.  ´Ã‚ ´Factors Affecting Bank ´s Risk Expoujiusure: Evidence from Malaysia ´Ã‚ ´. Issue 19, retrieved from:

Friday, July 19, 2019

Web Credibility :: Teaching Technology Internet Papers

Web Credibility Visualize the following scenario for a moment: You have entered what appears to be a library. The tens of thousand of rows and stacks of books seem endless. They are the focal point, an overwhelming, cartoonish image. The shelves seem ever-expanding by turns, and sag under the weight of the multi-colored volumes represented by all colors, forms and textures imaginable. There are some signs on the shelves that call out topics: Medicine, Science, Literature. Something is missing though, and the sheer number of books—the lure to peruse, to begin pulling and skimming is making it hard to concentrate on what it is; but it becomes apparent soon enough. There are no librarians and no help desks. No databases, library catalogs, no guidance at all. There is nothing to do but read, and once you open the books many seem to be missing the first several pages. At first reading, it may seem untoward to compare this surrealist library to the Internet, but consider the Internet by characteristics; by what it is, and what it isn’t, as a tool for research gathering, and it's not so far a reach. Choosing to begin a paper with an image rather than statistics, is a scheme to avoid the known, and to begin to promote consideration of what educators may or may not recognize about Web page credibility or the identification of credible Internet sources, why they should take the initiative, and what information they should utilize when educating their students, just as they would if undertaking a fundamental composition assignment. The Why of Teaching the Internet Now we have the Information Age, whose poster child is the internet. It seems to be all things to all people and thus can't be quantified or subjected to easy ethical questions. It is new territory, and the uncertainty of Internet ethics is far reaching. The Internet is for the most part unmanaged, unedited, unsupervised; anyone can post information on the Internet for all to see. Opinions can parade as hard facts; people with far-flung ideas can easily find an audience; photos, jokes and drawings of any ilk can be published†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ (Emmans ) This quote, from 2000, along with strong notions of overall growth, of sources and users, represents, for most educators, the known of the Internet. It highlights the ever-expanding shelves in the library above; the lack of available expertise when choosing sources, the absence of publishers, reviews (in the missing front pages of the books) and clear paths through the maze of open choice.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Lessons in King Lear by William Shakespeare Essay -- King Lear Shakesp

Lessons in King Lear by William Shakespeare Satisfying, hopeful, and redemptive: some critics would say that these adjectives belong nowhere near a description of King Lear. One critic, Thomas Roche, even states that the play’s ending is â€Å"as bleak and unrewarding as man can reach outside the gates of hell† (164). Certainly, Roche’s pessimistic interpretation has merit; after all, Lear has seen nearly everyone he once cared for die before dying himself. Although this aspect of the play is true, agreeing with this negative view requires a person to believe that Lear learns nothing and that he suffers and dies in vain. Indeed, this is exactly what Roche believes when he states that at the play’s end, â€Å"Lear still cannot tell good from evil . . . or true from false† (164). This nihilistic approach, however, not only disregards many of the play’s moments of philosophical insight, but it also completely misinterprets Shakespeare’s intent. That is not to say that Lear is without fault at the end of the play; as Shakespeare surely understood, Lear is still human, and as such, he is subject to human frailty. What is most important about Lear, however, is not that he dies a flawed man but that he dies an improved man. Therefore, although King Lear might first appear â€Å"bleak,† Shakespeare suggests that Lear’s life, and human life in general, is worth all of its misery because it is often through suffering that people gain knowledge about the true nature of their individual selves and about the nature of all humanity (Roche 164). From the very beginning of the play, Shakespeare suggests that King Lear has much to learn. As Maynard Mack explains in his essay â€Å"Action and World in King Lear,† the reader/audience is immediate... ...retations of King Lear. Ed. Janet Adelman. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1978. 22-33. Jorgensen, Paul A. Lear’s Self-Discovery. Berkeley: 1967. Kott, Jan. â€Å"King Lear or Endgame† Shakespeare: Our Contemporary. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1974. 127-168. Mack, Maynard. â€Å"Action and World in Shakespeare.† Shakespeare’s Middle Tragedies. Ed. David Young. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1993. 169-184. Roche, Thomas P. â€Å"‘Nothing Almost Sees Miracles’: Tragic Knowledge in King Lear.† Critical Essays on Shakespeare’s King Lear. Ed. Jay Halio. New York: G.K. Hall & Co., 1996. 149-169. Shakespeare, William. King Lear. Ed. Russell Fraser. The Signet Classic Shakespeare. Sylvan Barnet, gen ed. 2nd rev. ed. New York: Signet, 1998. ---. Othello. Ed. Alvin Kernan. The Signet Classic Shakespeare. Sylvan Barnet, gen ed. 2nd rev. ed. New York, Signet, 1998.