Sunday, March 31, 2019
Why Did Boudiccas Revolt Fail?I determined to research the question why did Boudiccas Revolt fail? for my extended essay. I utilise primary and secondary sources. The books I use a range of sources from roman type era to the modern day historians. thither was a consummation throughout history where they forgot about Boudicca this was the middle mount ups where roman history had waned at this percentage point. My investigation scope was master(prenominal)ly limited to the military features except alike con locationred political concomitantors.The conclusions I arrived at in the End is that Boudiccas disorder failed, collectable to the military strength of the Romans serious beat arma manpowert who trained perpetuallyyday, the fact that Boudicca was against a un cudgelable rival, no matter how long she fought they would acquire always won til now if meant sending reinforcework forcets, and the last factor is that the Britons were given a work forcedacious sense o f security whilst dealing with the Romans as before the final difference of opinion the Romans had non considered her a threat worth dealing with so in that location was non much attention focused on her and her forceriors.IntroductionThe Romans maiden invaded Britain under Julius Caesar in the year 55 BC this except was unhappy timing as the Roman battalions were called off to compete an other war in Gaul at which point they didnt invade Britain extensively until AD 43 under the rule of Emperor Claudius whose general Aulus Plautius served as the start g everyplacenor of Britain. The Roman troops at the time had sent 40,000 men to obligate part in the initial onslaught1. The Emperor non yet sent foot soldiers tho also sent knight as wellspring, m all British kinspersons sought to make peace, for example the Trinovantes , art object many went to war against capital of Italy such(prenominal) as the Druids in Anglesey in Wales. These contends went on for many year s and the Romans were never fully able to worst Britain. The second contributing factor was Britain itself at the time of the Roman attack in 55BC Britain had already established economic and cultural trading patterns with Continental Europe. Boudicca ace of the closely revered women in history, led Britons in AD 61 to fight the Romans for their freedom. The key question for many historians is, why did Boudiccas revolution fail? In this essay I plan to give an serve of my own as to why the former menti one and merely(a)d happened. The Historical significance of this lawsuit is that a women who at the time were considered inferior, led the most significant rebellions against the biggest army the world has ever known. During the time of the rebellion the terrain of England would hang out been quite contrasting than the one we have today it would have been practically all farming(prenominal) with only a few inflexibletlements every so often, until you reached Roman land w here the cities would have been built up. What makes Boudiccas freak even more spectacular is that she managed ii attack to main Roman cities, which no other Rebellion ever managed to do.Chapter 1 Boudiccas backgroundBoudicca was born around 30AD, she lived in the Eastern side of Britain and was Queen of the Iceni, and her actual cobblers last is also shrouded in mystery. Tacitus states that she poisoned herself subsequently her defeat at the army of Suetonius.2Dio Cassius relates that Boudicca fell ill and then died3. Wailing Street. Boudiccas revolt can be pinned back to the point of her husband, King Prasutagus death. Prasutages was able to ingest Roman citizenship4, which accommodateed him to believe that in one case he died his Kingdom and its inheritors would be safe. Prasutages will, as Tacitus explains, split the Iceni grunge in half, one-half for the Emperor Nero and the other for his daughters. This could be a reason as to why the Romans walked into the Iceni terri tory as they did. They did not see women as leader material so they believed that they could take the other half of the Iceni territory for themselves as they believed that with no male ruler it would take root into chaos. The Nobles of the land were evicted from their ancestral homes, and the Royals were treated like slaves. Boudicca was flogged while her two daughters were raped. Since she herself was not raped, David Braund suggests that she was an elder woman5, which gives her rebellion from the Romans even more credit as this would have shocked the Romans even further since they believed that women were unable to fight, so an older woman leading a rebellion would be an alien conception to the Romans. This news would have chop-chop spread throughout the neighboring territories and would have led to even more resentment towards the Romans.Chapter 2 Roman impingement of EnglandRoman Occupation began in 43AD under the rule of Emperor Claudius the Romans managed to take all of Britannia but were never able to take Caledonia. The reason for Romes invasion was to help Emperor Claudius secure his position in Rome as he organizationd opposition from the Senate. The reason for this was because the Army was the main arteria of Rome and the army paid for themselves, war was very profitable. Roman market-gardening reflected this as each leader essential to prove himself as an apt army commander, and for Claudius Britain was to be his military victory.6This was very different to the initial invasion by Julius Caesar, who planned to invade Britain for he believed that they were helping Gaul by supplying them with equipment. In late August 55 BC, 12,000 Roman soldiers set down about 6 miles from D everyplace. Caesar had planned to land in Dover itself, but had to change his plan as many Briton soldiers had gathered on the cliffs ready to fight off the invaders. Even so, the Britons followed the Romans to their landing place and a fierce fight took place on th e beach. The Romans were forced to fight in the water as the Britons stormed down the beach. Caesar was impressed with the fighting qualities of the Britons The Romans were faced with dependable problems. These dangers frightened our soldiers who were not used to involvements of this kind, with the results that they do not show the uniform speed and enthusiasm as they usually did in battles on alter land.7However, the Romans fought off the Britons who withdrew. notwith rest it was pass water to Caesar that the Britons were anything but a pushover and by the end of the year the Romans had withdrawn to Gaul. This invasion gave some breathing pose for Gaul and they right away revolted. This dragged and the Romans went into Gaul to crush the revolt. It is also clear that Britain was an rethink due to three numerouss that had been destroyed in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest by rebellious German tribesmen in 9 AD, and the Emperor Augustus concluded that the empire was overe xtended and called a halt to new wars of conquest. This war was a war of prestigiousness which Rome did not want to lose.Chapter 3, The development of the RebellionAfter the manipulation of Boudicca and her daughters, resentment towards the Romans grew even greater as the people saw only if how the Romans were willing to treat their apparent friends as before King Prasutagus death the Iceni tribe were friendly with the Romans. This would have allowed Boudicca to amass an army fairly easily, mainly due to the fact that many tribes already disliked Roman commercial enterprise and were looking for a reason to go to war with them. Boudicca went from tribe to tribe with her daughters explaining to tribal leaders that Rome had gone too far and they must(prenominal) take a stand to prevent them from going any further. As Tactitus also mentions Boudicea, with her daughters before her in a carry, went up to tribe later on tribe, protesting that it was indeed usual for Britons to fight under the leadership of women. But now, she said, it is not as a woman descended from noble ancestry, but as one of the people that I am avenging lost freedom, my scourged body, the outraged chastity of my daughters. Roman lust has gone so far that not our very persons, nor even age or virginity, are left unpolluted. But heaven is on the side of a righteous vengeance a legion which dared to fight has perished the rest are hiding themselves in their camp, or are sentiment anxiously of flight. They will not sustain even the din and the ridicule of so many thousands, much less our charge and our blows. If you weigh well the strength of the armies, and the causes of the war, you will see that in this battle you must clutch or die. This is a womans resolve as for men, they may live and be slaves.8This proved to the Britons that Boudicca was extremely serious about rebelling over Roman authorisation and she was confident that she would be able to successfully rebell against the Roman s. She believed this to be possible if she could incite the hearts and minds of all Britons. The reaction from the Romans during this inital uprising from Boudicca was minimal, it was unnoticed in Rome as they had the worlds largest empire to control. This could be another possible reason as to why the inital stages of the Rebellion from Boudicca was so successful, but once the Romans took notice the tables were quickly funed.Chapter 4, The importance of Colchester and LondiniumDuring Bouddicas revolt it was clear that Rome wasnt giving much oppostion9this would have encouraged her and her warriors to start making bigger attacks on Roman territory and this clearly happened. Boudicca laid siege on the capitol of Roman Britain Camalodunum (Colchester). This town however was mainly run by old Roman Veterans who would have improbable been able to fight. This lack of manpower and the fact that this urban center was a main artery for Roman Britain gave the Iceni and Boudicca the ince ntivite to destroy it. The 9th legion attempted to save the city but was ambushed by Boudicca and only a few survived10. The Army of Kelts set fire to the temple (which marked the conquest by Emperor Claudicus over Roman Britain) which burned everyone inside alive.After this victory Boudicca moved on to Londinium (London), the Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus sent a few troops in time before Boudiccas very large army arrived, Tacitus then writesAt first, he Gaius Suetonius Paulinus hesitated as to whether to stand and fight there Londinium. Eventually, his numerical unfavorable position and the price only too clearly paid by the divisional commanders rashness decided him to sacrifice the single city of Londinium to save the duty as a whole. Unmoved by lamentations and appeals, Suetonius gave the signal for departure. The inhabitants were allowed to accompany him. But those who stayed because they were women, or old, or attached to the place, were slaughtered by the enemy.T his shows that the Romans were not too fearsome to defend their city and were willing to let the Iceni burn it to the ground, and allow the families to be slaughtered if they were unable to leave with the Romans. Following Tacitus translation he then states that in retaliation for the burning of the city, the Romans slaughtered 70,000 Britons.Following this attack Bouddicas forces moved on to the city of Verulamium (St Albans) and destroyed it, through the two attacks on Londinium and Verulamium an estimated 70,000-80,000 were killed by Boudicca and her forces11Chapter 5, The military differencesBy the time the final battle occurred Boudicca had amassed an army of over 200,00012, however this numeral differs between certain historians. Tacitus reported that there were 100,000 Britons and Cassius Dio estimated 250,000. There were British sympathizers and family members standing behind Boudiccas warriors both historians do agree on this matter. The Britons brought their carts, and wagons were arrayed shape the rear of the British position, forming a significant barrier to movement for the Britons when they needed to retreat13.The Romans on the other hand had a considerably small number of around 10,00014. Full time employed soldiers whose job was to fight, these men had an incredible amount of training and expertise and this would have come from the antecedent battles and wars throughout the previous centuries which allowed the Romans to perfect their battle formations and tactics. Whereas the Britons were mainly farmers and had little time to dedicate to learning how to fight successfully as a social unit and as individuals, the Romans had mastered sword combat at an early age and every morning had a gruelling training session to forever hone their skills. The Romans also did not have to worry about lean to their farms or families as the Britons did. According to Tacitus, Seutonius had a total of 10,000 including his 14th legion a vexillation of the 20 th Legion, and auxiliaries. Other estimates put the Roman force at 7000-8000 legionaries and 4000 auxiliaries (including cavalry). Part of the Roman armys training was a twenty Roman miles (18.4 miles) march (to be completed in five hours) carrying a full mass of weapons, shield, intellectual nourishment rations, a cooking pot and a short spade, along with their personal kit.15This was then followed by heavy weapon carrying Roman soldiers who attend weapons training every morning. Roman soldiers practised hand-to-hand combat with woody swords, spears and shields that were deliberately much heavier than those they used in battle. They trained with dummy swords and javelins make of wood.16The soldiers then practised Roman formations allowing them to work and move as one unit. The most formidable formation they used was the testudo (tortoise) in which the soldiers would sequester together and lift their shields, interlocking them together. The soldiers in the back lines rigid the ir shields over their heads to form a protective shell over the top of the men. The shields fitted so closely together that they formed one unbroken surface without any gaps between them. It has been said that it was so strong a formation that men could walk upon them, and even horses and chariots be driven over them. The Romans also used other formations such as The Wedge this was used to break enemy lines. This extreme training discipline compared to the lack of discipline in Boudiccas warriors gives the clear view that the Romans were going to win in the final battle.Although the Britons outnumbered the Romans greatly, the Britons were given a false sense of security . This was clear as Tacitus states that in the final battle all the Britons families had turned up to watch the Roman bloodbath. Up until the final battle, the Britons were constantly massacring the Romans, which included the 9th legion. This was due to the possibility that the Romans were not lay much effort into c ontaining Boudicca because they did not see her as a threat whereas the Druids in Anglesey and Gaul were bigger threats to the Roman power or their religion. one time Boudicca started attacking Roman towns and cities, the Generals of the region started to take notice and this was the turning point for Boudicca as the Romans started to put pressure and effort into removing Boudiccas threat from their land. However they lacked the superior(p) discipline and tactics that won the Romans a decisive victory. However the chariots were exceptional. This description is how Julius Caesar described the Britons chariot ability while during battle Chariots are used like this. First of all, the charioteers drive all over the field throw javelins. Generally, the horses and the noise of the wheels are enough to terrify the enemy and throw them into confusion, as soon as they have got through the cavalry, the warriors jump down from their chariots and fight on foot. Meanwhile, the charioteers the n move away and place their chariots in such a way that the warriors can easily get back on them if they are hard pressed by the size of the enemy. So they admit the easy movement of cavalry with the staying power of foot soldiers. Regular reading makes them so skillful that they can control their horses at a full gallop, even on a steep slope. And they can stop and turn them in a moment. The warriors can then run along the chariot pole, stand on the yoke and get back into the chariot as quick as lightening.17while in truth by AD61 the chariot drivers were the rich class and barely trained compared to the Roman charioteers. The main vile of Boudiccas army was foot soldiers who were mainly poor peasants and were unable to spend most of their time training with swords and had to struggle to just make enough food to feed their families. In truth the army of Boudiccas while great in numbers was unable to fight as proved in their final battle agaisnt the Romans who were outnumbered 20 to 1.Chapter 6, Strategy and tacticsUp until the final battle, which no one knows the place of, Boudicca and her warriors were easily defeating the Roman attempts to stop them. For example the 9th legion in the burning of Colchester. This was partly because Boudiccas battles happened when Suetonius Paulinus, the Governor of Rome, was away fighting the Druids in Anglesey, North Wales. This meant that the Romans who were left behind did not have a leader to tell them what to do. However, this was soon to change as General Suetonius Paulinus once hearing of the Iceni revolt came back to England and this was the turning point for Boudicca as the Romans quickly turned the tables. The battleground as previously stated is unknown but Tacitus wrote a position with a wood behind him (General Suetonius). This would have placed the Romans at the top of some sort of hill, which would have been in tutelage with the standard Roman tactics. With the wood behind them, the Romans would have chann elled the Britons so the Romans would only have to face Britons on one side. Behind the Britons was their family, as they had expect a Roman massacre, behind them was the bounty they had amassed from their previous raids. The Celts were very senior high school on enthusiasm, people were shouting and music was playing everyone was enjoying the atmosphere. The Romans expectation towards this battle would have been very different. The Romans rallied around their commander, who delivered his speech convincing them that the battle could be won. Boudicca gave a final speech, and then the Celts charged towards the Romans.18The outcome was that out of 10,000 Romans only 400 were killed and all of Boudiccas warriors were killed, including their families and most of the Iceni tribe. Those who managed to survive and escape moved to Norfolk where the Romans unploughed a close eye on them. Boudicca was said to have poisoned herself after the battle had been lost to avoid Roman capture, however there is no mention of what happened to her daughters as they seem to have vanished from the history books.Tacitus says nothing of her burial. There is a story that she was buried at Stonehenge and its legendary circle of stones were set up by the Druids to mark her tomb. However there is no unbendable historical evidence over this period and it is most probably a myth.ConclusionIn conclusion, the reason Boudicca lost against the Romans in her final revolt was due to a simple reason. Boudicca was up against the most formidable army the world has ever seen, and the Romans were never going to allow Boudicca to disgrace them and allow her to get away with it. Even if Boudicca had managed to defeat the Romans in her final battle it is most probable that the Romans would have sent reinforcements into Britain to wipe her off the face of the map. This was the key reason as to why Boudiccas revolt failed Boudicca had set herself an unattainable goal and she was never going to come out on top, no matter what the outcome of her final battle was going to be.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
How The scotch Downturn Affected Uk Hotel Industry Economics Es distinguishPrior to the credit crunch which commenced in August 2007 when the European Central Bank and the US Federal Reserve put 45bn into the financial grocery storeplaces (Elliott 2008 online), Europe, the USA and the UK were enjoying an economic manna from heaven with rising ho lend oneself scathes and high consumer confidence (Bud equipment casualty 2008 online). Gross national harvesting (GDP) blush to 381,565 Million in 2007, and household disposable income per capita to 14,321 in the kindred social class ( get a line rase 2008, p. 18). During these boom classs, fetching was high and borrowers able to pass on large sums of money collectable to relaxed l lay offing restrictions by banks. Individuals whose circumstances would deport at one cadence barred them from borrowing were al woeful geargond to feeler umpteen quantifys their salary (Budworth 2008 online). Debts secured upon property were sold on to investors. Property prices olibanum became widely inf recentd creating a guggle which burst when borrowers started to default on their loans and the appreciate of the investments therefore skin heavily. The huge losses by the banks hint to the collapse of Lehman Br an some other(prenominal)s in the US and the near collapse of Northern jar in the UK meant that lending became much much difficult and banks stricter ab come forth who they lend money to. (Budworth 2008 online). The leaveing utterlyage of funds due to fears ab let on lending and privation of loans has light-emitting diode to a downswing in the miserliness, lighting house prices and adjoin unemployment with umpteen firms going out of business altogether and many more making drastic savings (Budworth 2008 online). Further consequences include a vast extend in public disbursement which is predicted to take years to soften off, a predicted rise in unemployment (by the British Chamber of Comme rce) to 3.2 one thousand million, wage freezes or hacks and massive job losses (The Economy News 2009 online). The collapse in unattached credit started in the USA exclusively in these days of global profession the implications were soon felt rough the world with the UK quickly facing problems. Germany, France and Italy the three largest economies in the Eurozone were offici exclusivelyy in fadeout by late 2008, and others rapidly followed suit. Both Spain and Ireland project witnessed a housing bubble burst and getion in wider economic employment (Foresight 2008, p. 7).2.2 The Pound Against the Euro and dollar unmatched circumstanceor that complicates the situation roundwhat is the pounds weak status against the Euro and Dollar. superior has lost abide by rapidly oer the last year or so. In July 2008, one pound would still buy $2, but by November 2008 it was worth only $1.48, the lowest point for 6 years. Similarly at one point 1 was almost equal in value to 1 Eur o. While this is fallacious give-and-take for pot buying obedients or voyageing outside the UK, it likewise means that UK goods and services become more fetchingly priced from the point of view of Eurozone or USA be activelers (OGrady 2008 Online). elementicularally, hotels in the UK give appear relatively cheaper since this fall in the value of sterling, and hence more gentle to inbound livelers and tourists. At the same sentence, it means it is slight(prenominal) attractive for the UK passmaker to travel to the Eurzone or USA, and more attractive to stay at home.3. Hotel Industry Background3.1 Introduction The Growth Years to 2007Hotel operators in the UK put up approximately(prenominal)(prenominal) to the bodily do main and consumer sector. Both argon real split of their operations and both includes not just registration but too facilities such as meeting and conference entourage in the pillowcase of the corporate sector and add-on services like food and beverages for both sectors. The UK has been historically an all important(predicate) business destination with the growing importance of the capital of the United Kingdom stock grocery and financial sector ( refer Note 2008, p. 11). In the consumer sector most activity is accounted for by spends and short breaks with a significant minority for wedding or party venues.The UK hotel commercialize grew in 2008 to a value of 11.5 billion, which is an annex of nearly 20% since 2002. This step-up took place against the backdrop of a healthy worldwide thrift with the global travel market retrieve after the 2001 terrorist attacks (BMRC 2009, p.1). Factors influencing this egress were varied and included an attach in the frame of tourists coming in to the UK in the years since 2002 and a diversification in the hotel market with increases in the compute sector as rise up as highlife brands. There was an increased call for upmarket brands as capital of the United Kingdom in particular saw an increase in the ultra fuddled market sector for which money was no object (BMRC 2009, p.1). Other factors unprompted growth include the growth in internationalisation and global business, rises in disposable income, and the development of tourism from emerging economies such as origin East Europe and India. The growth of the internet and online involution in any case stipendiary a part as well as increased selling by hoteliers ( pick out Note 2008 pp. 19-21).During 2008 this boom came to an end. The hotel industry was hit relatively late by the depression, and even during 2008 industry experts were proclaiming that the previous 12 months had been a time of overall growth (Cater hotel manager 2009, p. 6). Occupancy pass judgment were unruffled in the first part of 2008, but then hotel transactions started to decline and during family 2008 occupancy fell steeply as did revenue per means (Cater Hotelkeeper 2009, p. 6). Further, developments for new hotels and improvements were cancelled and reckons reduced.3.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of the UK Hotel groceryA draw Note address identifies aspects of the UK hotel market influencing the vulnerablity or resilience to corner. On a positive note, the UK hotel market is a strong and sophisticated one with a wide mountain chain of different options to appeal to a assert of different types of customer and including internationally recognised brands as well as small individual operators. Developments in technology and the increase of internet use over the last 10 years mean selecting and booking a trip is easier than ever before. The fact that most UK residents do not use hotels delimitate ahead offers an opportunity for growth, as does the potential for advertise increase in internet use. Restaurants attached to hotels and other such add on services provide further magnification potential. Finally, the UK is experiencing a growth in its older population, who rich person more time to travel.On the negative side, the hotel market is in particular vulnerable to an economic downturn as travel and trips ar often seen as an atomic take 18a in which spending can be thump back. ( appoint Note 2008, pp. 48-50). seek in like manner suggests that despite the appargonntly rosy outlook of the years immediately precedent to 2008, the market had other issues to contend with even without recession. The long-stay leisure market (defined as those travellers staying a track for five nights or more) has been in decline since 2004 the number of long-stay hotel suite booked in 2008 was half that in 2006, at 11 million (BMRC 2009, p. 1).4 The Impact of the corner on the Hotel Industry in the UK Specific Factors4.1 IntroductionThis section looks at some of the factors which bushel upon the Hotel industry, and why they ar important. The messages atomic number 18 mixed. Some of the factors are detrimental to the industry while others have more positive impact.4.1 Air fail in DeclineAlthough semipermanent growth in inquire for communication channel transport is projected, growth rates in the short to medium-term are likely to be affected by the general slowdown in the economy and by the rising apostrophize of air travel. A market-wide study indicates that although long-term growth in shoot for travel by air is expected, short to medium term projections are for negative growth in 2009 with the beginnings of reformy in 2010 ( nominate Note 2009, p. 10). This allow have an impact upon the UK hotel market as there leave be fewer travellers into the domain. However, it should be bourne in mind that fewer UK holiday makers will destiny to holiday abroad due to financial considerations, hence boosting demand for hotels.4.2 Collapse of the Property marketplace one(a) of the hardest-hit sectors of the economy in the recession has been create as house prices have crashed and loans to finance building projects have dried up together with the m arket for the finished product. The UK enjoyed some of the highest periods of growth of house and other building prices, and the construction industry has been particularly badly hit by the latest recession. Developers are unable to access credit to fund large scale building schemes, so many hotel projects have been stalled (Blitz 2009 online). Aside from new developments, hotel owners who are unable to access further credit are also finding things more difficult. While larger operators and branded chains are able to look to the medium and long-term, over which a boom for hotel and travel are predicted due to emerging markets, smaller operators have less access to the resources which will see them through the abutting couple of years (Blitz 2009 online).4.3 The Falling Value of the PoundThe pound fell against foreign currencies until at one point in late 2008 it was worth very nearly 1 Euro. This should mean that UK services, including UK hotels and UK tourist attractions, become more attractive to visitors from overseas as they get more for their Euro or dollar. The fall of the global economy has certainly had an impact in reducing inbound tourism, but at the same time the pound became more attractive against the Euro for the average visitor the apostrophize of purchasing goods and services is approximately 10-12% cheaper than at the same time the year before (Foresight 2008, pp.1-2). Foresight predicted at the end of 2008 that while inbound tourism to the UK would fall slightly with a growth of -0.7, spend would increase by 2.4%. It should also be considered that a falling pound makes it less attractive for the UK holidaymaker to leave the country as prices across Europe will become more expensive (Foresight 2008, pp. 1-2). nameBritain, the carcass which aims to upraise UK tourism, has launched a 6.5 million advertising campaign outside the UK to promote the affordability of Britain as a destination. However its calls for this investment to be matched by the UK regime have not so far been successful (Mintel trade Reforecasts, 2009 online)4.4 anoint pricesA further factor is the price of embrocate, as this dictates the cost of air fares. Increased oil prices head for the hills to raised surcharges on airfares and hence to higher(prenominal) flight costs. The cost to the airline is also considerable if the price of oil is high they cannot simply pass it all on to the customer. A Key Note market report noted that when prices were over $120 a barrel BA said it would find it hard to break even, easyJet commented that a rise of $1 adds 2.5m to its operating costs, and Ryanair predicted extra costs of Euro 400m (Key Note, 2009, p. 11) Higher prices lead to a decrease in inbound flights, but equally to an increase in the number of UK residents holidaying abroad who might then consider staying inside the UK. The price of oil fell from a high of nearly $ one hundred fifty a barrel in June 2008 to under $55 in November 2008. vegetab le oil price falls, however, can be bad news if the fall in price is due simply to a stagnant market (Foresight 2008, p. 6).5. How the Recession has hit Specific Areas of the Hotel Market5.1 Overview2008 has certainly seen a fall in the market, and vaticinations for the adjacent few years to 2012 are gloomy. Early 2008 showed positive trading in UK hotels, but the second half of the year had a significant deterioration with what Robert Milburn, of Www.cater.com, called fragile and volatile conditions in the trade. Numbers of overseas visitors dropped by 5% between April and June 2008, and lead-in times became shorter, with 1-2 weeks existence the norm sort of than 4-6 weeks. A fall of 1.8% was predicted for 2008, but the recovery in 2009 which was also predicted in a flash seems unlikely (Key Note 2009, pp. 62-63).With rising unemployment and fears about job security, there is not simply less money to spend on luxuries such as holidays and hotels, but also an increasing percept ion amongst consumers that they should make do and fixing the spendthrift attitude which characterised the 1990s and years to 2008 has been replaced by a mindl that one should save rather than splurge. until now by the end of 2008, predictions were cosmos make that 2009 will see less tourism overseas than in 2008, a situation which has occurred only twice in the last 40 years (Foresight 2008, p.3).Mintel predict a significant drop in the hotel market which will take some time to recover from, based on figures from the International Passenger Survey and trade sources. Their figures for revenue raised per on hand(predicate) room also indicate that the hotel sector is struggling in both London and the regions (Mintel Market Reforecasts 2009, online)In the hotel industry worldwide, occupancy rates are declining and revenue per room are also dropping (FT.com 2009 online). Average room rates in the UK have dropped to around ascorbic acid per night and demand is low (Blitz 2009 onli ne). It would seem at first glance that the industry faces a challenging time during 2009 and into 2010 at least, however there is also some positives holidays are seen by the consumer as very important, and the UK is perceived by holidaymakers around the world as an excellent destination (it is the 6th most visited country world wide and is ranked forth in the Anholt-GfK Nations Brand tycoon in terms of Tourism (Foresight 2008 p. 8)). Mintel predict that while holidays will be reduced by consumers they will not be cut out altogether and the average family will continue to take one main holiday per year as this type of break has become indispensable in the consumer mindset as more of a right than a privilege (Mintel Market Reforecasts 2009 online). Whereas the overseas holiday market will fall slightly in 2009 and 2010, the UK market will simply stagnate (Mintel Market Reforecasts 2009 online). The following sections examine events in and predictions for particular sub-sections of the hotel market in the UK.5.2 parentage TravelAs the global recession deepens, business travel will buzz off. Companies who remain in business will seek to cut their expenses by reducing spend on business travel, cutting trips to the absolute minimum and using cheaper hotels (Foresight 2008, p. 7).The 2009 Key Note report notes that domestic business travel within the UK, which also impacts upon hotel usage, will also decline. The market is expected to increase very slightly from 2011, but will remain generally static over the 2008 to 2012 period. Inflation will lead to a marginal increase in expenditure, but as inflation affects all sectors, should be discounted. invite Table 1Forecast UK Market, Domestic Business Travel, 2008-201220082009201020112012Trips (000)18,50018,30018,00018,20018,500Percent revision year on year-3.1-1.1-188.8.131.52Expenditure (M)45504590460046704800Percent Change year on year0.40.90.21.52.8Table 1 domestic business travel in the UK excluding those trip s which do not require an overnight stay (adapted from Key Note 2009, p. 29)The same report shows that the forecast for inbound business travel people travelling from overseas to carry out business in the UK is also poor. The rate of growth in 2008-2009 slowed as the world economy slumps. While the rate does not in reality go into decline, it slows to near 0. (Key Note, 2009, pp. 29-31).5.2 Consumer (Non-Business) TravelThe domestic travel area offers some possible positives for the industry as a entire. It is arguably the case that tourism and the hotel industry in the UK are punter placed to withstand the results of a recession than either other industries or other holiday destinations. The reputation of the UK as a whole is very strong as a destination, as is that of England in particular.A 2008 discipline by Visit Britain of 614 respondents based in the UK who regularly take short breaks reported that 9 out of 10 people consider England when choosing a short break. The bran ding of England has improved over the course of this tracker study, 58% of respondents say it is their favourite holiday destination considered. It is considered easy to get around and seen as having beautiful scenery (Visit Britain 2008, p.2). Short breaks account for almost 2/3 of breaks taken in the UK, so these findings are significant for the industry as a whole. (Bainbridge 2009, p. 1).Another consideration is the rising concern with being unfledged and the impact of frequent air travel on the purlieu (Bainbridge 2009, p. 1). Consumers who want to reduce their carbon footprint and impact upon the environment are increasingly opting to stay within the UK (Bainbridge 2009, p. 1). What Bainbridge does not highlight, however, is that the new concern for green issues is not completely beneficial. Tourists from overseas will be equally concerned to cut their travel abroad, so this could also reduce inbound tourism into the UK. Research is conflicting with some showing that intere st in saving the environment is fairly low priority for the majority of consumers and other studies confirming the idea that green issues will become increasingly important (Key Note 2009, p. 49). Hoseasons, the self- give leader, also take this view, claiming that more people are choosing to holiday in the UK because of a demand for a green and alternative to flying abroad. Similarly, the ferry lines entered 2008 assumptive that demand would increase for their services as a greener alternative (Key Note 2009, p. 49).5.3 Short BreaksA 2009 report confirms that although the market for UK short breaks taken by UK residents is not forecast to grow much over the bordering year or so, nor is it expected to fall. Key Note predict the following (Table 2)20082009201020112012 mass of trips(in Millions)55.057.060.060.062.0Value(M)8,0008,7009,3009,5009,900Table 2 Forecast UK Short-Break Holiday MarketKey Note also point out the conflicting factors at start in the non-business UK short break holiday market. It has been mentioned that holidays are very important to the UK public, moreover a short break can be taken where a long one might be rejected. However, research also suggests that while the main holiday is sacrosanct, short breaks are easier to do without, but this might relate to overseas breaks rather than UK ones. To further complicate the issue, as people are increasingly slow to sell their properties they might be expected to treat themselves to more short holidays rather than suffer the cost of moving house. The poor sterling rates also encourage people to stay within the UK for these breaks. On the other hand, family finances are being squeezed by job losses and the psychologies of a recession, and could deter people from spending on any kind of holidays. Overall there is no way of knowing whether an economic downturn is good or bad news (Key Note, 2009, p. 49)5.4 reckon Hotels and Holidays5.4.1 OverviewThe UK has the most expensive rates for hotels in Eur ope, and average prices rose by 12% in 2007 to an average of just over 100 per night. Londons exceptionally expensive rates influence this figure (Key Note 2009, p. 50). Against this background, and electric charge in mind the recession, a move towards increasing the number of budget hotels seems inevitable. Previous expansion in the hotel industry has concentrated on the luxury end of the market with the growth of boutique hotels and the interest in catering to the super-rich. While this seems unfortunate given the recession, it is not obviously a bad strategy as historically the luxury market has been shown to reflect the economy more slowly than the rest of the market. (Key Note 2009, p. 92) In October 2007, Marriott estimated the growth in revenue per available room at between 5% and 7% in 2008 however, by May 2008, this had been revised to between 3% and 5%. As clients reduce their spending, it is likely that over-supply will be seen in the market and this will lead to some br and rationalisation (Key Note 2009, p. 92).One predicable result of the recession is to increase interest in budget holidays and cheaper hotels. The Visit Britain survey of UK residents who take short breaks reported in March 2008 that price had now overtaken other factors in choosing where to stay (Visit Britain 2008, p.2). This is likely to increase as the UK moves deeper into recession.The budget hotel market was under development even before the recession set in. Established brands such as Travelodge and Premier Inn grow their operations, and they were joined by the Purple Hotels from the Real Hotel Group. Hilton also developed plans for a budget hotel chain, and CitizenM, a design-led brand, was developed. Other brands include Nitenite and Yotel, built at low cost using prefabrication techniques. The growth in the market has led to further segmentation in the sector with introduction of upmarket tiers to the budget range (for example Holiday Inns Express brand (Key Note 2008, p. 16)A Key Note report written at the beginning of the recession predicted that the mid-range hotels would be the main casualty of shrinking demand. The problems with the economy were exacerbated in the hotel industry by the recent increase in energy and food costs ( Key Note 2008, p. 11)5.4.2 Business Budget HotelsAs Bainbridge points out, budget hotels have benefited by both business and holiday customers downgrading in the recession. Some budget hotels have increased the range of facilities they offer to includes free wi-fi, breakfast and similar to allow in a new business clientele. Whitbreads budget chain, Premier Inn, for example (the UKs biggest hotel brand) is upgrading its rooms with flat screen TV, air-conditioning and Freeview, and has seen sales for its business account scheme increase 36% over the previous year to February 2008. (Bainbridge, 2009, p. 1).This increase in the number of business travellers using budget hotels since the start of the recession in 2008 is c orroborated by research by BDRC in 2009. They report that budget brands are consciously aiming to compete with mid-market brands by strategies such as the ones mentioned above. This drive has been rewarded by better standing in business advertising awareness for the budget hotel brands. (BDRC 2009 online) Key Note also report that mid-market business hotels are likely to suffer as they are positioned between the value and luxury hotel options, and what they call tiering, or introducing of levels in to the budget range, will also affect the mid-market brands (Key Note 2009, p. 92).5.4.3 Consumer Budget HotelsFor the non-business traveller, accommodation tone is very important in UK breaks. While travellers abroad endure less than perfect accommodation because costs are low and the weather good, within the UK they demand better quality. One issue is that bed-and-breakfasts and leaf node houses are notoriously prone to poorly-run individual establishments, leading to calls for the ma rket to be tightened. However the budget hotel sector has large(p) and has mopped up some of the non-business market as well. The fact that there are many chains available in this sector means travellers can be reassured regarding expectations and quality as they are buying into a brand name. This is particularly aline in London a popular choice for consumer short breaks where hotels are notoriously expensive (Key Note 2009, p. 50).5.5 Staff and Recruitment ImpactThe recession has had a severe impact on the hotel enlisting market, and it is unlikely to recover before 2010. Job cuts look set to reach 600,000 as businesses and consumers cut spending. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development warned of the toughest year in more than 2 decades, and their predictions were backed up by a survey of cl+ senior management in the hotel industry carried out by the enlisting specialists Admiral Group which revealed that over 2/3rds of those surveyed were going to delay recruitmen t decisions, and put fast-track graduate programmes had on hold (Sharkey 2009, p. 7). These findings are reiterated by the results of a study by Deloitte in 2008 which predicted that the downturn could cut new jobs in the sector by 100,000 with a corresponding dramatic shrink in the UK tourism industry. A recession could see a 11b reduction in the economic input by visitors to the UK, currently worth 114b or 8.2% of the UKs GDP. The British Hospitality Association also criticised the lack of help from the Government (Thomas 2008, p. 9)One less gloomy prediction is that the recession will have less impact as the hospitality market in general and the hotel market in particular is more diverse than in the past, with some opportunities actually being created particularly in the casual and budget dining and contract catering sectors. This is reinforced by a survey carried out by the British Hospitality Association which shows that the contract catering sector has grown and will continue to do so in the recession (Druce 2009, p. 7)5.6 mode Occupancy and PricesRoom occupancy rates the percentage of nights that hotel rooms are in active use have been increasing since 2005. This is good for hotel operators as it allows them to re founder investments and reap more return for their money. In 2007 there was a 1% point rise in domestic occupancy (61% in 2006, with the 2003 rate being 59%). This pre-dated the recession and was a result of the strong point of sterling at this time (Key Note 2008, p. 14)Returns in terms of paying accommodation in the UK show a surprising result. Gains were still made in 2008, and a report by Deloitte showed that in the early part of the year revenue per room grew strongly (Caterer Hotelkeeper 2009, p. 6), which is unusual as the recession started to set in during this year for most parts of the UK economy. However, this seems to be a function of gains made at either end of the booking season. Early bookings would have been made before wo rries about the economy set in, and late bookings made might have been as a result of last-minute demand and hence prices paying were higher (Key Note 2008, p. 15)5.7. littler and Specialist SectorsThe result of the recession can also be traced in the smaller and specialist areas of the UK hotel market. For hotel operators, boom areas in these sectors are not necessarily a good thing, as will be shown.5.7.1 natural action HolidaysActivity holidays overseas were enjoying a boom in recent years, however for the next few years the market is predicted to grow less rapidly, whereas activity holidays in the UK are predicted to rise. In 2010 for example the total no of activity holidays in Millions taken by UK residents was predicted before the recession at 11.5 this was revised to 10.8, with 2011, primarily predicted to total 12 million was revised to 11.4. By contrast, predictions about UK activity holidays have been revised upwards the 2011 level was predicted at 5.0 million, and thi s was revised to 5.3 million. (Mintel Market Reforecasts 2009 online). The impact for hoteliers is mixed. If the holiday involves hotel stay, then the news is good however if the accommodation is self-catering the hotel operator will lose out.5.7.2 All-Inclusive HolidaysAll inclusive holidays, a sector which has been in decline in recent years due apparently to the increasing ease of online booking and ease of finding information, are now predicted to rise over the short-term as they allow all holiday costs to be known in advance and paid for up front. Both Thomas Cook and TUI are aiming to increase their panoptic capacity (Mintel Market Reforecasts 2009 online)5.7.3 Camping and Caravaning HolidaysThis sector enjoyed a boom in the 1960s and early 1970s but with the advent of cheap overseas package holidays has been in decline. However, Mintel predict that these holidays are an attractive option for the budget conscious consumer, and will benefit from the increase of families who el ect to stay in the UK in 2009 and 2010 for financial reasons. They point out that the Camping and Caravanning club had their shell ever year for recruitment of new members in 2008 (Mintel Market Reforecast, 2009 online). Domestic camping holidays are predicted to do rather better over the next couple of years before the long-term trend towards decline reinstates itself. The growth in this area is not good news for the hotelier, as by definition a stay in a hotel is ruled out for this holiday type.5.7.4 OthersOther sectors, for example boating holidays, have also been affected. Even where the market remains buoyant boating and luxury holidays growth prediction has been downgraded and is expected to occur at a s pull down rate than predicted (Mintel Market Reforecasts 2009 online).Sectors of the UK market which are predicted to do well include coach holidays within the UK which are seen as a budget option and so are fairly resilient to an economic downturn, and heritage tourism as well as holiday centres like Centre Parcs. Mintel see the latter as particularly resilient as they are both percieved as a budget option and are attractive to the UK consumer as they offer pay in advance all-in-one packages. An increase in coach holidays is also good to some extent for the hotelier, although the bulk of coach holiday operators chose low-cost hotels where price margins are cut very low, as the coach holiday is seen as a price-conscious alternative to the consumer.6. Lessons Learned from Previous Economic DownturnsThe last time a recession occurred in the hotel industry was in the wake of the 2001 family line eleventh terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers in New York. The Sept 11th attacks and anthrax scare which followed caused uncertainty about the short and medium-term economic futures and had an impact upon travel and tourism plans leading to a reduction in hotel use and travel. In the US these areas, along with airlines were significantly affected in the effect of the terrorist attack. (Mintel Market Reforecasts, 2009 online). In the recession of the early years of the 21st century, the repartee to the challenge was to discount room rates heavily, however this strategy was of contestable use. The heavy discounting was intended to boost occupancy level, however this necessarily led to less profitability and income it took years to recover from this as consumers became used to the lower prices. As Bloss (2009) points out, the tactic is also very easy to copy by competitors and hence a risky one.7. Conclusion.The UK hotel market has certainly been affected by the economic downturn. The above looked at the background to the recession and how it has affected the corporate and consumer sector. While the sector has certainly been impacted with job cuts, slower, stagnating or declining predictions and less building projects, there are some positives for the UK market as holiday makers elect to stay at home rather than travel abroad.
Propaganda Theories and Models The MH370 casualtyPROPAGANDA THEORY ON THE MH370 sequentContents (Jump to)INTRODUCTIONPROPAGANDA THEORY RELATING TO MH370 INCIDENTCOUNTER PROPAGANDA BY THE GOVERNMENTREFERENCESINTRODUCTIONMystery continues to surround the serving of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, which disappe ard en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing on 8 March.Malaysian authorities, assisted by international aviation and satellite experts, are straight battling to piece together the planes final hours in the hope that they poop harness its wreckage and explain what happened to its 239 passengers and crew. Some preliminary details were released on 1 whitethorn in a short report.Accordingly, many propaganda arises on this progeny. Some of propaganda emanating from the topical anaesthetic media and not to forget from abroad. If we look from the point of propaganda speculation itself, on that point is roughly good propaganda that led to the issue of loss MH370, just there l ikewise resulting in a negative impact on public acquaintance towards the way the judicature is dealing with the issue.To deal with the propaganda that apply to this incident, we will try out whether the form of propaganda, the propaganda perspective itself and how the disposal to overcome this problem.Merriam Webster Dictionary gives the definition of propaganda as ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to help a ca give, a policy-making leader, a government, etc. the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of circumstances or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person, ideas, facts, or allegations spread designedly to barely nonpareils cause or to damage an opposing cause to a fault a public action having such an effectFirst introduced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky (1988), Manufacturing Consent The Political Economy of the Mass Media, the propaganda model argues that the material give-and-take by dint of five filters, which in turn form the audience true the intelligence agency. This filter determines what is considered newsworthy events, how they are covered, where they were placed in the media and how much reportage they receive.Propaganda model of media control that was introduced by Edward. S. Herman and Noam Chomsky (1988) states how propaganda works in the media. This model tries to consider how populations are manipulated, and how affectionate, economic, policy-making attitudes are formed in the minds of the people through with(predicate) propaganda. Herman and Chomsky are mostly concentrated in the American population and the media for their research, but the theory applies universally.Propaganda model seeks to explain the behavior of the media by examining the institutional fight backures that gear up and influence the news content in a profit-driven system. In air to liberal theories that argue that journalism is defined hostility author, the propaganda model predicts that the company-owned news media will consistently produce news content that serves the interests of established power (Herman Chomsky, 1988).PROPAGANDA THEORY RELATING TO MH370 INCIDENTAmong the propaganda that exists from within Malaysia itself mostly spread through social media on the internet, given the sophistication of the current information age, there are blogs and websites questioned the credibility of the government and even spread propaganda relating to this issue of MH370.Among the widely disseminated propaganda on the website saying that Malaysia experienced a bad media Especially from the Western press and especially CNN and Extension of this, of good journalistic practice for hazardous and schedule driven, further lead to more conspiracy theories especially the involvement of CNN.The rampart reproduces an article written by Matthias Chang, the profession as a lawyer, social activist, author and political analyst. He reveals how the MH370 is a multi -dimensional, and why the Zionist custody should not be overlooked. Although somewhat lengthy, is worth reading every devise printed Before proceeding with Expose of Zionist propaganda Insidious Dastardly and Israel on the Cessation of MH 370, let me take this opportunity to convey my personal condolences and that of my family to a family who loves Ones live been killed in this tragedy and we hope ur strength to overcome the impairment pint them.He would also commend the Malaysian governments efforts in the SAR armorial bearing involved 26 countries that had never happened before. Allegations of unfair and unfounded against the Malaysian government made by many people in social media who do not have a clue and or expertise to input on the operation of the Standard and Poors scale.Another propaganda that there is involvement from the unify States, which was propagated that where Maldives island Residents reported sighting of low strike downing jet on the forenoon of the plan es Disappearance thats was finally inform on twelve days after the fact. The pilot of the missing plane had a home flight simulator, Which was been Reported twelve days later to contain the landing simulation course of the Diego Garcia runway along with four other Approaches in the region. Whether any, all, or none of this information is true is notwithstanding a matter of Conjecture. What Remains thats a fact is not a trace of the Malaysian 777-200ER has been found. At his routine news briefing on 3-18-14, WH spokesperson Jay Carney has denied any Involvement of the Diego Garcia induction with the Disappearance of flight MH370.In addition to conspiracy theories involving the United States, one side is highly spoken of as real mastermind seat the MH370 is a tribe of lost Jewish or Israeli. It is the act of get and Israel has a Boeing 777 2H6 (ER) long owned Malaysian Airline (MAS). Aircraft twin MH370 has been put down at a small airport in Tarbes-Lourdes-Pyrnes, France on O ctober 4, 2013 before he was interpreted to Ben Gurion Airport, Tel Aviv, Israel on 4 November 2013. Understandable, MAS Boeing 777 aircraft with serial topic 28 416 and registered as 9M-MRI has been sold to GA Telesis, LLC in Fort Lauderdale, Florida on October 21, 2013 before the N105GT.Pesawat registered as recorded in Tarbes Lourdes Pyrenees on October 4, 2014 before taken to Tel Aviv a month later.The question is, why would Israel want to buy and have a long plane MAS this? If referred back Israeli reactions associated loss MH370, a security expert of the country, Isaac Yeffet relate it to the theory that MH370 have been captured by the terrorists and taken to Iran to be used for a series of terror will come. Yeffet reportedly gave a statement to the Times of IsraelWhat happened to this aircraft, nobody knows. My guess is based upon the stolen passports, and I believe Iran was INVOLVED. They hijacked the aircraft and they landed it in a place that nobody can see or find it. ( There is no case what has happened to the aircraft. Based on reported cases of stolen passports, I believe Iran is involved in this case. They had seized the plane and fly it into a place that cannot be found).Another propaganda that arises during the incident came from the opposition parties, where they assume that the incident crated by the government was to create a diversion to the voter, as coincidently at that time Kajang by-election was taking place. The propaganda was that by showing the neat effort towards the search and rescue operations, the government will the heart of the voters.Actually, there was so many propaganda arises during the incident even until now, people are still fed with various elements of propaganda for the positive and negative as well. If we examine this theory from the angle of propaganda, the government should also take the opportunity by apply this incident as their leverage in building up the government credibility.COUNTER PROPAGANDA BY THE GOVE RNMENTAccording to brownpoliticalreview.org in its reports, the recent slice of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370 and the resulting media spotlight has revealed Malaysias fundamental shortcomings and glaring political issues.While the planes disappearance itself is horrendous in particular for the many families left in limbo the Malaysian governments handling of the situation has drawn considerable international disapproval which leads to the distribution of the propaganda.In order to deal with the issue of propaganda in connection with the issue of MH370, the government shall be wise to use methods and tactics namely through counter propaganda.Counterpropaganda is a structure of communication consisting of method in use and messages relayed to resist propaganda which seeks to manipulate action or perspectives among a targeted audience. It is closely link to propaganda as the two often utilize the same methods to transmit methods to a targeted audience. Counterpropaganda differs from propaganda as it is defensive and responsive to identified propaganda. in addition, counterpropaganda consists of several elements that further differentiate it from propaganda and ensure its efficiency in opposing propaganda messages.While propaganda messages whitethorn not always be straightforward, efficient counterpropaganda commonly only impart the truth. Without a doubt, counterpropaganda is generally understood to be the truthful, comely opposition to an adversarys propaganda. Counterpropaganda communicates honest messages for ethical and realistic reasons.Looking though reporting of the event, the government from the fountain should report the facts related to this incident. Counter propaganda elements should be applied to achieve the silk hat effect. Reporting matters of fact, although filtered, to some extent can relieve speculations made by the public, especially from the families involved. This can create a deficiency or impuissance in reporting which leads to the dissemination of wild propaganda, even more so from the opposition.ReferencesChomsky, Noam and Herman, Edward. (1988) Manufacturing Consent The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York Pantheon Books.Cole, Robert. (1996)Propaganda in ordinal Century warfare and PoliticsLasswell, Harold D.. (1971)Propaganda Technique in World War I. Cambridge, Mass The M.I.T. Press.Garth Jowett and Victoria ODonnell, Propaganda and Persuassion, 4th ed. Sage Publications, 7Herbert Romerstein, Counterpropaganda We Cant Do Without It, in Waller, ed., strategical Influence Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda and Political Warfare (IWP Press, 2008), 135.Frontpost, Nachrichten fr Deutsche Soldaten, Herausgeber Die Amerikanischen Truppen in Westeuropa, No. 1(March 1945), 3 in Waller, ed., Strategic Influence Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda and Political Warfare (IWP Press, 2008), 144-145.
Friday, March 29, 2019
How and why is priapicness in crisis?Discuss with reference to psychoanalytic theories of masculinity.It is widely argued that Western Societies are presently witnessing a crisis of masculinity. The status of masculinity is changing and this is partially due because the order of magnitude is changing economically, socially and especially in relation to the position of wo workforce. These changes in addition affect the sphere of consumption and popular culture.I will study at first how Freud places a great dialect on the ahead of time relationship of the three-year-old male child. This relationship will get to heavy consequences for development. check to Freud, this relationship is overshadowed by the oedipal conflict. Secondly I will go finished Kleins theory most the relationship among the boy and the m another(prenominal). Contrary to Freud, Melanie Klein emphasis the powerful maternal figure. After that I will develop how masculinity is shaped by social and cult ural theories how and why masculinity is changing. manlike identity op periodtor as it has been seen formerly within time-worn cultures as evolved into a new male. The roots of a crisis in masculinity are analysed in social theories in damage of a conflict in sexual urge consumptions. Cultural theories, which intersect with La pots report, are also important in how the crisis in masculinity has been studied. The rise of feminism has surely encouraged many men to question how they view women. Now that feminism has attacked the aged systems of power and control, masculinity has been left undermined and unsure. Finally I will give an overview on how masculinity is view between men.To evaluate how masculinity might be in crisis, it is first necessary to examine how psychoanalytical theories assume that boys gain their manlike identity or in other words how they shape men. Freuds ideas ab push through masculinity developed in three steps. The first champion is the idea of conti nuity between normal and neurotic mental life, the fantasys of repression and the unconscious(p), and the method that allowed unconscious mental processes to be read by means of dreams, jokes, slips of the tongues and symptoms (Connell, 1995). Freud understood that adult sexual urge and ggoaler were non fixed by nature however were constructed through a long and conflict-ridden process. Freud places a great emphasis on the ahead of time relationships of the childlike boy with his parents or caregivers. It is the vicissitudes of these relationships that will have important consequences for development. In Freudian terms, this early relationship is overshadowed by the oedipal conflict. The Oedipus complex is characterized by the relish for one parent and hatred for the other. For boys, the Oedipus complex is the emulation with the father and scare of castration. Here Freud identified a formative moment in masculinity and pictured the dynamics of a formative relationship.Fre ud argued that homosexuality is not a simple gender switch and a large proportion of male inverts retain the mental quality of masculinity. The second step in Freuds compend of masculinity is the development to gender. He goes further by saying that masculine and feminine currents coexist in everyone. In his final stage, Freud developed his key push through of the structure of personality, in particular the concept of the superego. The superego is formed in the moment of the Oedipus complex, by internalized prohibitions from the parents. Freud gradually came to see it as having a gendered character, macrocosm importantly a product of the childs relationship with the father, and much distinct in the caseful of boys and girls. This provided the germ of a theory of the patriarchal organization of culture, transmitted from one generation to the next through the construction of masculinity.The most important processes that egest in early life that influence the construction of t he male identity is the oedipal complex. According to Greenson (1968), the idea of disidentification is divided into two processes firstly a boy must sever the emotional ties he has with the primary caregiver, comm entirely the mother, and secondly he needs to secern with a male role model, usually the father. The role of the father in the masculine identity is seen as crucial by psychoanalysts. Horrocks (1994) sees the role of fathering as an introduction to manhood. He also identify one of the most important functions of the father as to show the young boy that it is possible to live with the mother, to have conflict, fear and guilt. According to Horrocks, the contemporary damage male is seen as unfathered.The boys entry into his masculinity fire only be achieved through his castration complex which sets in motion his time interval from his mother and identification with his father. Freud (1925) explains the castration complex by a few stages. First, the young boy believes t hat everyone has a penis. Secondly, he discovers that women do not have penises and assumes that they have been mutilated. Thirdly, when he begins to masturbate, he is told that he will be castrated. Fourthly, when he finds that the breast has been removed, he believes that the penis will be next. The Oedipus complex is abolished by the fear of castration.In contrast to Freud, Melanie Klein argues that is envy of the mother rather than rivalry with the father that impedes psychic changes. The relationship between the boys and the mother has been left undeveloped by Freud. Disagreeing with Freud, astir(predicate) his account of oedipal feelings in relation to the father, she argues that the first signs emerge in relation to the mother. In fact, according to Horrocks (1994) the young boy is surround by feminine presence throughout his early childhood, and it is important for him to establish away and discover a world of men where he squeeze out gain his roots of male identity. T he central paradox is that men inadequacy to escape from womanhood but there is also the desire to become close to a woman. For Klein, masculinity and femininity are biologically contumacious and reinforced during childhood in face-off to Freud who believes that bodies and minds are structured through patterns of cultural power. Klein assumes that the concept of the womb envy is an important component in the male psyche. Minsky (1995) describes how the Kleinian point of view sees the development of male power as being rooted in the fear of the womb. Besides his envy of his mothers breasts, the young boy also becomes envious of her womb and the power it give to pull in life. According to Minsky (1995), the phallus saves men and provides a distraction from the womb envy. Kleins concept of womb-envy is important to understand male misogyny. Boys envious of their mother have to subscribe that they can neer have breasts or a womb. Unconscious womb-envy helps to explain the oppositi on between nature (identified with women) and culture (identified with men). Men have to opt for culture because nature, in the sense of giving birth and feeding children from their consume bodies, is simply unavailable to them (Minsky, 1996).Is the notion of a crisis in masculinity new, or it is just that for each one generation experiences it in antithetic ways? The reason has been suggesting the latter. As Mangan says Crisis isa tick off of masculinity itself. Masculine gender identity is never stable its terms are continually being re-defined and re-negotiated, the gender effect continually being re-staged. Certain themes and tropes inevitably re-appear with regularity, but each era experiences itself in different ways. (Mangan 19974).Cultural conceptions of masculinity and femininity vary between cultures and alter over historical time. Cultural theories, which intersect with Lacans ideas, are important in how the crisis in masculinity has been studied. According to Laca n, the phallus is the central manakin of the sexual difference. The principle of masculinity rests on the repression of feminine aspects and introduces conflict into the opposition of masculine and feminine. Faludi (2000) described the new male as objectified and subject of a sexist consumer culture. In addition, he believes that the mans secured attachments and relationships with the workplace are no longstanding powerful and exclusive as they were. Now that the rise of feminism has attacked the patriarchal systems of power and control, masculinity has been left undermined and unsure. Apparently, this rise has left men alienated in the way they view women. Faludi strongly believes that this crisis in masculinity can be resolved if both women and men can work unitedly to combat it.There are a number of contributory factors to the supposed crisis in masculinity. I will be describing some of them.Maguire (1995) point out that mens crisis concerned their social role and identity. For her, these uncertainties manifest themselves in violence, increased levels of self-annihilation and abusive behaviour towards them or others. Men are more credibly to commit suicide than women. Suicide appears to be triggered by relationship problems, unemployment, medicate and alcohol abuse, low self-esteem and mental illness. Many men roost bad at acknowledging and expressing feelings which left them trapped between the old-style macho and the new-man suit behaviour requiring a man to be in touch with his feelings. fond research finds that men are choosing to remain living at radix rather than move out on their own (Office of National Statistics, 2000). milium (2002) found out that this evidence prove that men are flunk to cope with the new challenges they are facing.Society is moving from a patriarchal culture, to give way to different masculinities. The rise of feminism, changing family patterns, social concerns about jobs contributed to these changes.The advent of p ost modernity has resulted in redundancy, constant job role changes and unemployment for men. According to Beynon (2001) men now suffer deep depression at the loss of the breadwinner role and the status that went with it. He claims that men are move out of family life in greater numbers and may end up lonely. More men end up isolated socially and psychologically, finding it difficult to ask for help. At least 50% of spousal relationship in UK result in divorce and as Beynon found out men is mostly responsible for marital breakdown.Nowadays, women have demonstrated that they can bring up children without men. Clare says that the rise in the number of single mothers suggests not merely that men are inadequate as partners and fathers, but they are simply redundant. Women are asserting that they can convince rear children on their own. They dont need men to father their childrenwomen can do without them in the workplace. even more significantly, they can do without them in their beds. (Clare 2000100).A significant number of fathers involved in divorce leave the family home and become non-resident. The see father is a shadowy, displaced figure trying to avoid becoming an ex-father, who bread but does not stay, who is no longer a man of the house, but a visitor who come and goes. (Clare 2000 150-1).Women are seen to be living more successful and fulfilling lives, without relying on their partners. So, the loss of patriarchal authority and the equality in heterosexual relationship have left men disoriented.In other way, is the notion of a crisis in masculinity new, or it is just that each generation experiences it in different ways? The evidence has been suggesting the latter. As Mangan says Crisis isa condition of masculinity itself. Masculine gender identity is never stable its terms are continually being re-defined and re-negotiated, the gender performance continually being re-staged. Certain themes and tropes inevitably re-appear with regularity, but each era experiences itself in different ways. (Mangan 19974).
Thursday, March 28, 2019
In the essay, American Dreamer by Bharati Mukherjee, Mukherjee writes about the problems of immigrants nowadays. Because of her families religious customs duty, Mukherjee is confined by her permanent identity in her own shade, a Hindoo Indians last work announced his or her forefathers caste and place of origina Mukherjee could completely be Brahmin from Bengalmy identity was viscerally connected with ancestral dirty word and genealogy (Mukherjee 1). From her attitude towards her identity, Mukherjee does not want to confine by the Hindu tradition. She is rebellious against her own culture even though she understands Hindu tradition forbids any assimilation with any other culture. After her marriage with an American of Canadian origin, she had hard time adopting the new environment in Canada. the great unwashed in Canada see her as a visible minority because of her zip that she is not white. She remarked America as promising nation of democracy and comparability however, America still has many flaws on the clash of ethnic issues. No matter how hard the immigrants try to assimilate into American culture, the society treats them as minority, subordinate citizens. Because they are not white, they are categorized as beingness Asian-American. She pointed out that immigrants are trapped in the identity crisis a someone not knowing who he or she is in the foreign culture, and some of the first-generation Indo-Americans are even more-Indian-than-Indians-in-India (Mukherjee 3). Similarly, in Jasmine by Bharati Mukherjee, Jasmine, the protagonist is an immigrant from India and she has created different identities for both place she stays. Jasmine aspires to forget her past memories and identities, while some immigrants in the tonic are seeking to reta... ...l group. Although they are U.S. citizen, they lose their sense of belonging in America. Nirrmala is living in her own little world while Professorji is disguising himself from the deep in thought(p) of dream. They do not know who they are and where they belong to. A wife who still keeps her Indian name and culture and a husband who attempts to concur into the American society but his ego is still drowning in his past. Mukherjee who has tatterdemalion her biological identity, she would exclaim to the immigrants that to follow the Jasmines belief, to bunker oneself inside nostalgia, cover the heart in a bulletproof vest, was to be a coward (Mukherjee 185). Immigrants should seize their cultural memory, let the past make you wary, by all means. entirely do not let it deform you (Mukherjee 131). Mukherjee conveys that let the American culture to transmogrify them, but not their past.
The Covenant, the stigma and the offshoot of the originalWhat does the word of honor terrorist bring to head? Without even see the accused, mostpeople in this country mechanically assume this person is Middle-Eastern and Muslim. Although quarters Terror in the take of God focuses chiefly on Islamic terrorists, it begins by addressingterrorist acts of a more(prenominal) homegrown variety. Stern interviews American terrorists here in the UnitedStates.The Covenant, the stain and the Arm of the Lord or CSA, a chemical group of radical Christians,became unmatchable of the most bowelless white supremacist centers of the 1980s (Phelps). Members livedcommunally on a 250-acre compound approximative the Arkansas-Missouri border (Barkun 428). The groupcame to accept the teachings of individualism Christianity, which, harmonize to Stern, means seeingAnglo-Saxons as the true Israel, America as a set apart land, and the Declaration of independencyand the Constitution as a God-inspi red, Christian heritage (17).Followers of Identity Christianity also expect to be present for eschaton (Stern 17). Infact, the members of the CSA believed the revealing was imminent (The Covenant, the Sword and theArm of the Lord). As Kerry appalling (minister and second in command of the CSA explains, weare Christian survivalists who believe in preparing for the ultimate final solution (Paranoia as Patriotism).And that is exactly what they did. The organization set up an Endtime Overcomer natural selectionTraining School, which offered a course in war machine tactics, Christian warlike arts and urbanwarfare (Paranoia as Patriotism). every last(predicate) male members of the group trained in every aspect of soldiersaction (The Covenant, the Sword and the Arm of the Lord) and each was issued full military gear,... ...right. The crossroads Voice New York 25 Mar. 1997,36-38. Alt-PressWatch (APW). ProQuest. W.E.B. DuBois Library, Amherst, MA. 11 Oct. 2007.Stern, Jessica. Terror in the look up of God. New York HarperCollins, 2003. van Boven, Sarah, and Seibert, Sam. Prep work. Newsweek 126.7 (14 Aug. 1995) 4.Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. W.E.B. Du Bois Library, Amherst, MA. 10 October2007. silk.library.umass.edu2048/login.aspx? manage=true&db=aph&AN=9508147623&site=ehost-live&scope=site.Wheeler, Tim. McVeigh could tell some tales. Peoples hebdomadal World New York 26 May 2001, NationalEdition 13. Alt-Press Watch (APW). ProQuest. W.E.B. DuBois Library, Amherst, MA. 11 Oct.2007 . The Covenant, the Sword and the Arm of the Lord Essay -- CSA Identity The Covenant, the Sword and the Arm of the LordWhat does the word terrorist bring to mind? Without even seeing the accused, mostpeople in this country automatically assume this person is Middle-Eastern and Muslim. AlthoughSterns Terror in the Name of God focuses mainly on Islamic terrorists, it begins by addressingterrorist acts of a more homegrown variety. Stern interviews American terrorists h ere in the UnitedStates.The Covenant, the Sword and the Arm of the Lord or CSA, a group of radical Christians,became one of the most violent white supremacist centers of the 1980s (Phelps). Members livedcommunally on a 250-acre compound near the Arkansas-Missouri border (Barkun 428). The groupcame to accept the teachings of Identity Christianity, which, according to Stern, means seeingAnglo-Saxons as the true Israel, America as a sacred land, and the Declaration of Independenceand the Constitution as a God-inspired, Christian inheritance (17).Followers of Identity Christianity also expect to be present for doomsday (Stern 17). Infact, the members of the CSA believed the Apocalypse was imminent (The Covenant, the Sword and theArm of the Lord). As Kerry Noble (minister and second in command of the CSA explains, weare Christian survivalists who believe in preparing for the ultimate holocaust (Paranoia as Patriotism).And that is exactly what they did. The organization set up an Endtime Overcomer SurvivalTraining School, which offered a course in military tactics, Christian martial arts and urbanwarfare (Paranoia as Patriotism). All male members of the group trained in every aspect of militaryaction (The Covenant, the Sword and the Arm of the Lord) and each was issued full military gear,... ...right. The Village Voice New York 25 Mar. 1997,36-38. Alt-PressWatch (APW). ProQuest. W.E.B. DuBois Library, Amherst, MA. 11 Oct. 2007.Stern, Jessica. Terror in the Name of God. New York HarperCollins, 2003.Van Boven, Sarah, and Seibert, Sam. Prep work. Newsweek 126.7 (14 Aug. 1995) 4.Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. W.E.B. Du Bois Library, Amherst, MA. 10 October2007. silk.library.umass.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9508147623&site=ehost-live&scope=site.Wheeler, Tim. McVeigh could tell some tales. Peoples Weekly World New York 26 May 2001, NationalEdition 13. Alt-Press Watch (APW). ProQuest. W.E.B. DuBois Library, Amherst, MA. 11 Oct.2007 .
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Diversity Statement - I Wish to Follow in the Steps of Hubert Harrison Hubert Henry Harrison was born in 1883 in St. Croix, Virgin Islands, and became, by the 1920s, angiotensin-converting enzyme of the nations most prominent atheists. Harrison was a controversial figure from an early geezerhood. Coming to New York City at 17, he used his knowledge of foreign languages to land a occupation with the postal service. This permitted him to pursue his passions for learning and writing. This latter pursuit soon set down him in hot water with his bosses, however, when he wrote an article critical of booker T. Washington, a darling of the establishment. In 1905 he turned to the law as a profession, but continued his writing, and also became a popular speaker. By age 24 he was contributing book reviews to the Sun, the Tribune, The Nation, and The New Republic. Harrison served as editor of the magazine The Masses for four years. Soon, Harrison was one of the foremost intellectuals of the Harlem Renaissance, which was attach by a number of exciting, talented agnostics. Harrisons knowledge ... ...as too much(prenominal) to overcome, especially in addition to the racial prejudice which Harrison faced. The measure of his victory is not to be found in the history books, but in the recollections of those who knew and were influenced by him, and the contemporary press accounts of his achievements. Harrison died in New York at the age of only 44. He left a legacy as one of the most outstanding persons of his day, a champion of the underprivileged and oppressed, a freethinker who overcame many obstacles to become a man to be admired by all.
Edna PontellierPeople occasion the personal manner they live their lives around the society they live in. It gives you walls that you can either shape your life with, or you can breakdown to make a mold of your own. The society Edna comes from impactes her to rebel against her life, try to live her own way inside the walls and then finally break free of the walls, wich leads to the termination of her character. creation born in a time that is not right for her, Edna tries to push the things that her society accepts. In her world it is normal for a husband to go steady the life of the life of his wife. It is not normal for a woman to pass on her husband and keep a good name. Trapped by the standards garnish up for her, she knows that there is no easy way out. As practically as she gives to her society she st...
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Alex HaileyJournalist, writer. Alexander Murray Palmer Haley was born in Ithaca, New York, on August 11, 1921. He grew up in Henning, Tennessee, and graduated from high school at age 15. Haley studied at enjoin Teachers College in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, for two eld, and joined the Coast Guard in 1939. He started out as a mess attendant, Third Class, and in 1952 became the low to hold the title of Coast Guard Journalist. Haleys friends quickly discovered his writing talent and began requesting his help when writing their own crawl in letters. Haley also used his talents to recount the old tales of sea captains, which turned into his first published story. In the 1950s, Haley served as a public relations liaison, turn of events run-of-the-mill Coast Guard news into exciting, media-friendly narratives. After 20 years of service, Chief Journalist Haley retired from the Coast Guard in 1959 to pursue his go as a journalist full-time. He wrote stories for Playboy and Reader s Digest , but his career exploded in 1965 with the publication of The story of Malcolm X . Haley had interviewed the minister of the Nation of Islam for Playboy, and these conversations expanded into the acclaimed autobiography. Malcolm X died shortly in the first place the collaborative effort went to press. In 1965, Haley resolved to trace the genealogy of his acquires family. He had grown up listening to his grandmothers stories about Kin-tay, an African ancestor who was enslaved and shipped to America. Haley embarked on a safari to Juffure, a village in Gambia, to learn more. A local historian was adapted to tell Haley about his great-great-great-great-grandfather, Kunta Kinte, who was brought to America via slave-ship in 1767. Roots, Haleys account of his familys history, was published in 1976, after 12 years of research and fanciful reconstruction.
Monday, March 25, 2019
EcodiscEcodisc is a program which allows the user to take on the role of aNature Reserve Manager. It was designed by a man named bastard Bratt, andEnglishman in S fall outh Devon. Ecodisc is designed so that the user can jar against whateffects certain changes can make on the environment with out real making thechanges. Ecodisc is a good educational tool show new users the effects ofcertain decisions. It can also be utilize a map, because it lets you see various commences of the record reserve without actually going there.Ecodisc allows the user to take on the role of a disposition reserve manger, which isthe person who basically decides what changes will be made to the reputation reserve.With aid of the Ecodisc, the results of decisions can be shown without actuallydoing anything, or doing any misuse to the environment.Ecodisc allows users to explore various parts of the nature reserve and view itfrom opposite positions. You can see the area from any direction (north, sou th,east or west), and even from a helicopter position. Ecodisc lets you see theareas of the reserve from any part of the year. For example, you could view thereserve in the middle of winter and see what it looks equivalent in summer.Ecodisc is one of the first interactional programmes, and there are hopes of nearday there being interactive broadcast television. This is a find invisual entertainment, because while television lets you see a place, interactivevideo will let you explore it. Interactive video is where the dish decides theplot and characters of a movie, or show. The viewer will basically be able towrite their own scripts and produce the movie at the selfsame(prenominal) time.Ecodisc would be very good for showing students (or anyone) spare-time activityed inmanaging nature reserves, working for national parks or just as an interest
Summary and Analysis of The shop clerks Tale (The Canterbury Tales)Prologue to the shop clerks TaleThe legions remarks that the Clerk of Oxford sits quietly, and tells him to be more cheerful. The Host asks the Clerk to tell a merry description of adventure and non a moralistic sermon. The Clerk agrees to tell a story that he learned from a clerk at Padua, Francis Petrarch. He then praises the renowned Petrarch for his sweet rhetoric and poetry. The Clerk does warn that Petrarch, before his tale, wrote a poem in a juicy style exalting the Italian landscape. AnalysisIn the Prologue to the Clerks Tale, Chaucer indulges yet once more in a mild critique of his contemporaries. Here he analyzes Petrarchs stories and finds misunderstanding with his overindulgent descriptions of the Italian landscape, yet nevertheless he finds Petrarchs story good replete to adapt for his own Canterbury Tales. Geoffrey Chaucer did adapt most of these tales from outside sources, modifying them as he sa w fit and often making significant changes in noise and plot points. Nevertheless, many of the stories in the Canterbury Tales did not originate with Chaucer himself. The Clerks TaleThe tale begins with the description of Saluzzo, a region at the base of Mount Viso in Italy. There was once a marquis of this region named Walter. He was wise, dreadful and honorable, but had one major flaw. He refused to marry, choosing careless pursuits instead. His refusal was so rigid that the people of his realm confronted him about this, pleading with him to take a wife. They call to choose for him the most noble woman in the realm for him to marry. He agrees to marry, but makes this one condition he will marry w mobver he chooses, regardless of birth, and his wife shall be tr... ...tes Griseldes fortitude is callous and inappropriate to the purpose. The future(a) tests that Walter inflicts on his wife appear to serve a different purpose. Walters pauperization seems to shift from demonstrat ing his wifes capacities to breaking down his wife. This may be due to enviousness for Griselde, a woman universally beloved by his people, who at the set-back of the story consider Walter irresponsible and immature. By the time Walter sends Griselde naked from his home he has become wholeheartedly sadistic. The reconciliation that concludes the Clerks Tale is therefore unsatisfying, for it restores to Walter what he does not deserve. The reconstruction of the family that occurs when Griselde and her children return to Walters estate is at best tenuous, pitch together a wife and a husband who tortured her, and children and the parents who did not raise them.
Sunday, March 24, 2019
Rockefeller Drug Laws     In May of 1973, New Yorks Governor, Nelson Rockefeller, made a set of stringent anti-drug laws for the state legislature. The consumption of these laws was to stop the drug abuse epidemic that was occurring in New York during the early 1970s. It was the most severe law in the landed estate the drug laws were to punish those who possessed and sold heavy cores of narcotics like cocain and heroine and to hold them in custody for the amount they possessed or sold. For example, if the mortal was caught with the possession of two or four ounces of drugs on them the minimum m in a federal prison would be 15 eld to life, no matter what historic period (if the withdrawender was of 15 years of age or older). Many problems began to occur concerning the laws, also there were many critiques concerning hold out or not it would work and be kept as a law.     The Rockefeller Drug Laws is still one of the most brutal drug la ws in the nation because of its ground breaking punishments. The laws state specifically that, the statutes require judge to impose a sentence of 15-years to life for anyone convicted of selling two ounces, or possessing four ounces of "narcotic drugs". This made it clear for all those that were dealing drugs that this was a no-nonsense rule. This was the beginning of up coming events in history that cut to protests and also very famous summits acquiree by family members of people in prison under the unfair ruling, friends and supports of those against the harsh laws to keep drugs off the streets.     The purpose of the laws was to provide protection and isolation from people who were not yet snarly with the drug epidemic. Also, it provided peace of mind for politicians that wanted to get the drug dealers off the streets permanently. For New York the drug war had just begun. Many people were for the bleak laws they saw drug dealing as if it were just like implementation because the death rate from narcotics at the cadence was increasingly high and the insecurity of the drugs being on the streets was worse. The consequences of these laws bear become even exaggeratedly ridiculous. In many cases a first time drug offender being charged under these laws can receive a higher sentencing past a person convicted of murder or rape. This meant that by possessing a kg of cocaine or... ...al job. I feel that not everyone that deals should be sentence to prison. however because a first time offender is carrying a certain amount of kilograms, they are sentences according to that. This is injustice because a person who may have committed other minor crimes may be charged the akin way as a person who made a dislocate for the first time. Besides that sentencing everyone that makes a crime is extremely expensive. People who dont have any type of connections with people who are empower in prison have to be paying money to swan them in prison.      As we all know, drug dealing is still termination on and it wont be stopping any time soon. As you have interpret, even though the Rockefeller Drug Laws had so practically demands upon it, still many continued to do it. In the article we read in class Criminal Justice through the looking Glass, or winning by losing illustrates how effective laws arent. one thing he says I will not go so far to say that the culpable justice policy has made no contribution to the drop in crime rates. Therefore, crime will always continue and what we should be curse about is how to help these individuals who are making these crimes.