Wednesday, February 20, 2019

RTL Implementation of MP3 Decoder IP Core

RTL IMPLEMENTATION OF MP3 DECODER IP COREAbstractionThe intent of this survey is to look into the effectivity of the MP3 decrypting material body in computer ironw ar comparison to the more than popular downyw ar program devise. Nowadays, the MP3 shoot coiffure is the most popular criterion for audio coalescency, used in playback device such as audio participants and nomadic phones. While MP3 decipherment is one of the indispensable portion in multimedia system, most of the decipherment innovation are software-based, peculiarly because of the design of the system, which is easier compared to the hardware portion. However, the bundle design has full(prenominal) clock, therefrom high power ingestion. This happens because of the design itself it has more loop in the scheduling algorithm. There are confinements that combine both hardware and mailboat design in the MP3 decrypting creative activity, but the ground get goingalone hardware demythologized belongings ( IP ) core group is still non good explored.This composing bequeath present a brief position on the basicss of the labor, every human action good as the needed in typeface informations needed in functional on the chore. Every inside informations presented in the count are every gathered from diaries, books and the online extraction useable. The mark of this undertaking is to run the designated IP nucleus and implemented in Register Transfer Level ( RTL ) manner, in which it flabby means utilizing the hardware descriptive linguistic dialogue ( alpha-lipoprotein ) as the footing linguistic communication for the design.Table OF CONTENTSChapterTitlePageDedication2Re informations3Abstraction4Table OF CONTENTS5List OF FIGURES71.0Introduction81.1Undertaking Background81.2Aim91.3Problem Statement91.4Scope of the Undertaking102.0Literature Review112.1Related Studies and Previous Work112.2Introduction to the MP3 decoding Core132.2.1Synchro area142.2.2Huffman Decoding152.2.3Requanti ser162.2.4Reordering172.2.5Antialiasing182.2.6Inverse Modified decided Cosine Transform ( IMDCT )192.2.7Synthesis Polyphase Filterbank203.0Research Methodology223.1Introduction223.2Ocular Reintroduction of Research Methodology223.2.1Altera DE2 Board243.2.2Altera Quartus II253.2.3NIOS II25List OF FIGURESFIGURE NO.TitlePage2.1The MP3 bitstream format192.2The terzetto split of frequence line202.3The reordering purpose ( the darker coloring material represents higher frequences )222.4The antialias butterfly232.5Types of window sequences in a subband252.6The IMDCT procedure flow273.1The undertaking l remove flow3.2The Altera DE2 visiting card ( beginning hypertext transfer protocol //www.terasic.com.tw/ )293.3The Quartus II process bench environment303.4The NIOS II work bench environment31Chapter 1IntroductionUndertaking BackgroundMPEG-1/2 audio layer-3 ( MP3 ) is a most popular format for playback of high quality compressed sound. During the recent old ages the activity of MP3 sound codec has exploded. Typically MP3 sticks are played back utilizing package ( central processor or DSP ) , but recent tendencies start since informant the outgrowth of take-away device, such as nomadic phones and MP3 participants. While DSP architecture is the most businesslike for running MP3 participant, the challenges of FPGA execution of MP3 decrypting are less understood.Field Programmable Gate Array, simply known as FPGA, is one type of incorpo point circuit that is consumer-programmable, and so it is called field programmable . This incorporate circuit uses hardware descriptive linguistic communication ( HDL ) to configure. Nowadays, FPGA has since advanced into a high degree of efficiency during the ult decennary. It has since become the major HP in different types of operations programme, since it can be employed as standalone System on Chip ( SoC ) or coercive gas pedals in multi-chip system.The mark of the undertaking is to implement the MP3 decrypting nuc leus by using the FPGA belongingss. While utilizing the bing package codification to run the decoder in package, travails has been through to run the decipherer in hardware, which leave behind go the principal(prenominal) way in this undertaking. Then, comparing the public presentation of these two methods will in like manner be the focal gratuity of the undertaking.AimThe aim of this undertakings areTo conception the MP3 decipherer hardware based and can be implemented in portable based designTo measure the efficiency of the hardware based decipherer comparison to the common package based deciphererProblem StatementMost of the MP3 decoding designs are of in package. However, the hardware aftermathance of the decryption design has since taken the popularity today. Therefore, several(prenominal)(prenominal) efforts arrive been taken to make the to the full hardware architecture of the decryption nucleus. This paper will measure the efficiency of the hardware decipherer as pe r package decipherer and to look into the advantages of both methods.Scope of the UndertakingThe range of the undertaking includes combination of several elements such as hardware, package and electronic separate. Below are the Scopess for the undertaking.Uses Verilog HDL linguistic communication as its principal(prenominal) footing for programmingExplore the application of Verilog utilizing Altera DE2 BoardInclude package programming such as C and C++Implement the application ( partial ) utilizing set downloaded package for package execution ( Quartus II 9.1, Nios II 9.1 )Chapter 2LITERATURE REVIEWIn 1988, Hiroshi Yasuda ( Nippon Telegraph and Telephone ) and Leonardo Chiariglione had initiated the works group Traveling Pictures Experts Group ( MPEG ) to put the criterions for audio and video compaction and transmittal. The group, formed by International Organisation for Standardisation ( ISO ) and International Electrotechnical guidance ( IEC ) , has since developed into an org anisation joined by members from assorted industries, universities and look establishments. angiotensin converting enzyme of the criterions that gather in created is the MPEG-1 Layer 3, or good known as MP3. MP3 is the metre format used for digital audio compaction, in which the design sire 121 compaction ratio, from 1.4Mbps 128kbps bitrate for compact phonograph record ( atomic number 48 ) music.Related Studies and Previous WorkIt is known that MP3 decrypting procedure is a hard procedure, but several research workers and industrialist project attempted to plan the decipherer for this specific format. For case, Faltmanet Al.( 2003 ) have stated that the designing of MP3 decrypting in portable and stand-alone participants have gained in popularity. In the study, Faltmanet Al.( 2003 ) besides stated the importance in the public presentation of these hardware MP3 decrypting based on the clock rhythms and power use. It besides includes an effort to to make an MP3 decipherer in h ardware, by utilizing Xilinx FPGA board. Thuon commove Al.( 2005 ) have proposed the architecture of the MP3 decryption nucleus, in which the subcores of the architecture can be separately designed, coded and tried easy. However, the design of the nucleus is coded utilizing VHDL, the older version of RTL linguistic communication.Ko and Nicolici ( 2007 ) have tested the execution of the nucleus utilizing Altera DE2 board and Xilinx multimedia board. It besides has consequences including the figure of logic elements, reversals, memories and multipliers involved. Bhargav and Yang ( 2008 ) have introduced the use of Linux-run interface on the decryption nucleus. Their research has besides opened the possibilities of animating the popular piece of consumer engineering utilizing bing hardware available in the lab. Still, the design utilizes both hardware and package constituent in their design architecture. It has few general lags due to system clock and debugging procedure.Singhet Al.( 2008 ) have proposed that the exact of hand-held participants and multimedia in nomadic phone have raised a demand for a dedicated hardware to decrypt the file formats with low power ingestion and faster acceleration. Papakonstantinouet Al.( 2008 ) have researched congresswoman survey on the execution of drifting point math in decipherer execution to accomplish existent prison term and faster decrypting procedure. In the instance survey, the writers introduce floating-point ( FP ) unit in their architecture to measure the operation velocity therefore naming it the FP execution of MP3 decryption.In the latest research by Moslehpouret Al.( 2013 ) , the undertaking uses NIOS II system, which is a portion of package device, to canvas files and produces end proceeds from the decrypting procedure. By utilizing unafraid digital ( SD ) card as stimulant drug devices, the system uses Altera DE2 board but synthesize different file format moving ridge files, or.wav extension files. Eve n so, the exposure of the study have shown that running the decipherer is possible, peculiarly because of package characteristics use Altera SOPC constructor in Altera Quartus 9.1 environment, in which the platform is largely used in troika instruction degree.Some of the old work did even make the architectural design of MP3 decipherer, utilizing a VLSI cell-based flame. Tsaiet Al.( 2004 ) have proposed the specific architectural construction of MP3 decipherer in which it achieves a high throughput with a reduced memory demand and hardware complexness. Meanwhile, Kalpanaet Al.( 2012 ) have tried to implement the algorithm on the decreased direction set computer science ( RISC ) based outgrowth processor, which is far more advanced, proficient wised.All of the old work did withdraw its important characteristics in edifice MP3 decryption nucleus, either in hardware or package. However, the execution of MP3 decrypting IP nucleus, which uses Verilog HDL as its hardware linguistic c ommunication, as implementing it to the full hardware based is non good discovered. Therefore, the focal point is the study is to undertake the design of MP3 decrypting nucleus, on the surface at least.Introduction to the MP3 Decoding CoreHarmonizing to Kalpanaet Al.( 2012 ) , all MP3 files are divided into fragments called hurtles. Each frames shops 1152 samples, enduring for 26ms, which the frame rate is about 38 frame per second ( Federal Protective dish up ) . The first measure to decrypt MP3 file format is by adventure the start of the frame, which is called synchronism procedure, or else called initial reading.SynchroscopeBefore decryption, the start of the frame must be fix. If the frame is interrupted, we can non happen the exact place of the adjacent frame ( Thuonget Al., 2007 ) . The construction of the frame consists of 5 parts heading, cyclic tautology cheque ( CRC ) , side information, chief informations and accessory informations.HeadingCRCSide InformationMain informationsAncillary Data witness 2.1The MP3 bitstream formatThe inside informations about the frame heading is as followsFrame HeaderIt is a 32-bit long and has description of the frame, unneurotic with the synchronism word to separate the get downing portion of the bitstreamCRCUse to look into if there is any transmittal dislocate for the most sensitive informations. The CRC will merely exists when the protection part in the heading is set.Side InformationIncludes the of import information needed to decrypt the chief information. This depends on the channel manner. For individual channel, 136 spots are allocated, while for double channel, 256 spot allocated ( this is tantamount to 17 bytes in individual channel, 32 bytes in dual-channel )Main DataThe chief informations portion consists of the frames that includes scalefactors, Huffman coded spots and accessory informationsAncillary DataThis information can keep user-defined information. This frame country can keep optional inf ormations such as call name or song information.Huffman DecodingThis subdivision contains one of the most of import undertaking in MP3 decryption. The undertaking of Huffman decrypting is to transform and mapping the information into scalefactors and symbols stand foring the 576 original frequence lines for separately granule. These frequence line is divided into three divider Big- determine,Count1andRzero.Big-valuesCount1RzeroFigure 2.2The three parts of frequence lineDetailss on the Huffman codification divider are as followsBig-valuesRepresents the lowest frequence lines and are coded with the highest clearcutness, scaled from values between -15 to 15. When the decipherer finds the value 15, it assumes that the higher preciseness is needed. This can be done by utilizing the value 15 as an flight codification, so reads extra spots from the imput watercourse. The figure specified in the Huffman tabular array are called linbits.Count1Represent the higher frequence lines non nece ssitate the higher preciseness scaled value. Ranging from -1 to 1.RzeroRepresent the highest frequence lines, and non portion of the bitstream. It contains the the frequence lines that are distant by the encoder. These values are filled with nothing by the decipherer.RequantiserThe symbols generated from Huffman decrypting is so reconstructed into the original frequence line by utilizing the scalefactors provided in the side information of the frame. The low frequence scalefactor set contains less values than the high frequence.The descaling equation for both short seal offs and long blocks are defined asShort blocksLong blocksThe denoted scalefactorsscalefactor_sandscalefactor_lused by requantiser are provided by Huffman decipherer. Parametersglobal_gain,subblock_gainandpreflagcan be found in the frames provided by the Synchroniser block. The notaiondefines end product from the Requantser block, whileis the Huffman decoded value at indexI.ReorderingThis block merely has one under taking it reorders the frequence lines within a granule. When the short block is decoded, a short window will be used. The end product is so sorted into subbands, so on frequences and at last by Windowss to increase the efficiency of Huffman coding.Figure 2.3The reordering procedure ( the darker coloring material represents higher frequences )AntialiasingAntialiasing is the procedure where its map is to cut down the inevitable assumed name effects because of the use of non-ideal bandpass filtering. The alias reconstruction is based on the butterfly numeration, dwelling of eight butterfly computation for each subband.Figure 2.4The antialias butterflyInverse Modified distinguishable Cosine TransformInverse Modified Discrete Cosine Transform, known as IMDCT, reproduce nip samples from the frequence lines, together with synthesis polyphase filterbank. The clip samples can be obtained from the frequence lines by utilizing the undermentioned equation.The IMDCT operation flow begins by taking 18 stimulant frequence lines and generates 36 polyphase filter subband samples. The samples so multiplied with with a 36-point window before passed into following decryption procedure. Windowing is the procedure of multiplying and overlapping tack operation of IMDCTs end product with the sine window coefficient. establish on the length of each window, four types of block is used they arestart,halt,shortandlong. The inclination of block type is based on the analysis of the psychoacoustic theoretical account.Figure 2.5Types of window sequences in a subbandHowever, bring outing 36 samples from 18 input means that there are merely 18 samples are alone, therefore the IMDCT method uses a 50 % convergence. In this instance, the 36 end product samples is so divided into 2 groups, low group and high group, which has 18 samples each. The overlapping procedure is so carried out by adding values from the higher group, old frame with the lower group, matching frame. Then, the freque nce inversion is so taken topographic point to accomplish right stage difference. This was done by multiplying every uneven subband with ( -1 ) .Figure 2.6The IMDCT operation flowSynthesis Polyphase FilterbankThis block is the last measure in decrypting procedure. It converts all 32 subbands to bring forth 32 Pulse Code Modulation ( PCM ) samples at a clip The filterbank exploits aliasing and windowing to travel the subbands back into their frequence sphere. This block is divided into two parts Modified Discrete Cosine Transform ( MDCT ) and windowing.Modified Discrete Cosine TransformEach clip frame of the subband samples are ordered so that the first 32 values are the first sub-sample from each subband, and so forth. The MDCT processes 32 values at a clip by utilizing the equationwhereThe end point end product values,is so stored in the set shifter.WindowingThe windowing procedure tallies by multiplying the valuesfrom the barrel shifter with the window map. This window map is sp ecified in the ISO criterion. The PCM generated are so computed for each loop. The MDCT and windowing together run 18 times for each granule, bring forthing 576 PCM samples ( 27ms at 44.1kHz ) .Chapter 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGYIntroductionThis chapter discusses the well planned attack taken during the projects timeline to guarantee that the undertaking is good organise and run expeditiously. The methodological analysis is represented into a flow chart for easiness of apprehension.Ocular Representation of Research MethodologyThe designate work flow for the undertaking is shown below, in Figure 3.1.Figure 3.1The undertaking work flowThe undertaking begins by researching any old plants related to the MP3 decryption and FPGA-based architecture execution. to a fault that, several resources on hardware descriptive linguistic communication and package programming tutorial have besides looked at. The procedure involved in constructing the nucleus is studied and briefly elaborated to give exc ess cognition in order to carry through the research. The importance and intent of the undertaking is besides discussed in the first phase.The hardware used for proving and implementing the undertaking is Altera DE2 educational Development Board.Figure 3.2The Altera DE2 board ( beginning hypertext transfer protocol //www.terasic.com.tw/ )Altera DE2 BoardThe Altera DE2 board provides everything needed to develop many advanced digital designs utilizing Altera Cyclone II device, with utilizing application package Altera Quartus II. This schooling board is the first measure to present and memorize basic FPGA devices easy, since it is accessible in the lab. It is suited for a broad scope of exercisings in classs on digital logic and computing machine organisation, from straightforward undertakings that illustrate cardinal constructs to progress designs.Altera Quartus IIFigure 3.3The Quartus II work bench environmentAltera Quartus II is a package tool produced by Altera for analysis an d synthesis of HDL designs, which enables the user to roll up their designs, take to the woods clocking analysis, analyze RTL diagrams, imitate a design s answer and configure the mark device with the coder.NIOS IIFigure 3.4The NIOS II work bench environmentNios II is the most widely used soft processor in the FPGA industry. Nios II incorporates many sweetenings over the original predecessor, Nios architecture, doing it more suited for a wider scope of embedded computer science applications, from DSP to system-control. The development for Nios II consists of two separate stairss hardware coevals, and package creative activity.

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