Tuesday, February 19, 2019
Mengele Annotated Bibliography
This book goes into extreme detail describing every facet of the national socialist regimes various medical examination experiments, policies and atrocities with the intention of giving the reader an understanding of the oneness-time(prenominal) such that it should not repeat itself- as the beginning suggests it may in todays atmospheres of modern genocide and ethnic cleansing. Lifton draws comparisons plowshargonicularly to potentially similar situations in Serbia, Rwanda and Cambodia, and draws parallels to the political and societal evolutions that took entrust in Germany, eventually developing a genocidal mentality that resulted in the establishmentatic kill of (and medical experimentation on) millions of innocent(p) victims.It smoothly describes the growth and development of the overall Nazi medical ideology, ascendant with the definition of life unworthy of life. Lifton explicates the process by which mentally and physically disabled children and adults came to be regarded as detriments to society that needed to be killed- some(prenominal) for their own cracking and for the betterment of mankind. This twisted view resulted in a state-sanctioned euthanasia program, wherein German doctors were outset compelled to break their Hippocratic Oath- the professional engagement to do no harm that is as old as euphony itself.From its beginnings, Lifton further describes the progression of Nazi putting to deaths under the guise of science- culminating in the incline of Dr. Josef Mengele in the concentration camp Auschwitz. Unlike many studies of Mengeles work, Lifton does not reduce simply on the horrors he perpetrated during his time at the camp. Rather, he attempts to explain how the camp culture indoors Auschwitz and the increasingly brutal practices of the Nazi system resulted in the atmosphere which allowed such horrible atrocities to occur.Koren, Y. (2005). Mengele and the Family of D fightfs Yehuda Koren Tells One Familys Remarkable tarad iddle of Surviving Auschwitz. History Today, 55, 32-33.This article examines an early(a) group of Mengeles victims, Jews suffering the patrimonial disease of shadowism. Specifically, an entire family, all of whom somehow managed to survive not scarcely his experiments but the deadly atmosphere of Auschwitz itself.Koren provides first-person accounts via interviews of some members of the Ovitz family, a laughable kinsperson from Romania that arrived at Auschwitz in 1944. The family of twelve include seven d fightfs and was the largest recorded dwarf family in the world and before their transport to Auschwitz had spent years touring in a traveling exhibition that promoted them as the Lilliput Troupe. Mengele was extremely interested in genetic abnormalities, and as such targeted dwarfs and other unusual individuals for experimentation.Experiments conducted on the family included extensive drawing of blood, high doses of radiation, removal of blood marrow samples, teeth pulled and the women received mysterious injections into their wombs. Despite all of this horrid treatment, Mengele seemed to have a strange fondness for the family and often treated them to special meals and other privileges, so that he could rehearse them as a source of entertainment for other SS officers. This makes their case extremely unique amongst all of his victims. So, age he avoided killing them, he did so for entirely selfish reasons.The case involving this particular family offers evoke insight into Mengeles personality.Freyhofer, H. (2004). The Nuremberg Medical Trial The final solution and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code. new-made York Peter Lang Publishing.This book examines and explains the Medical or Doctors trial of Nuremberg, by recount everything that led up to the trial, and the wide-ranging effects it had. Particular care is compensable to analyzing the breaches in ethics by members of the medical community that chose to take part in the Nazi euthanasia pr ograms and subsequent medical experimentation on prisoners. These doctors, when charged with war crimes in the face of overwhelming evidence of what went on during the course of the war in hospitals and concentration camps, attempted to prove that the experiments they carried protrude were justifiable in the name of science.Though Josef Mengele was on the run and in hiding at the time of the Trial and didnt face justness alongside his fellow perpetrators, Freyhofer goes into extensive detail analyzing Mengeles methods and potential motivations, as easily as the ethical implications of Mengeles work. Instead of focusing on the nature of the experiments performed by Mengele and other Nazi doctors, this text seeks to examine the larger picture of medical responsibility.Freyhofer explains the nature of the Hippocratic oath and why it failed to endure the pressures brought upon it by Nazi ideology. Coupled with this is a study of how the doctors charged in the trial, many of them high ly respected in their fields before the war, could have so soundly warped their ethical viewpoints.The most significant contribution of this work is the write up of the Nuremberg Medical Code that resulted from the trial, in which the courts set a legal global standard for medical experimentation. As a result of this landmark decision, doctors could neer again claim to have performed experimentation on unwilling subjects for the good of science.Riordan, C. (1997). The Sins of the Children Peter Schneider, Allan Massie and the Legacy of Auschwitz. Journal of European Studies, 27, 161-180.This article examines the repercussions that Nazi war crimes have had on the descendants of some(prenominal) the perpetrators and the victims. Countless sources recount the stories of Holocaust survivors and the stories of their children, but few examine the effects the war had on the as innocent children of many top Nazis. These children grew up with the heart-breaking weight of their fathers crimes, which in minute generated a degree of self-loathing.One particular figure of interest in this article is Rolf Mengele, the son of Dr. Josef Mengele. Mengele, having disappeared after the war into hiding in Brazil, lived off the rest of his days in relative peace and quiet, never confluence retribution for his terrible crimes. Six years after the death of his father, Rolf at last came forward and recounted his story of what it was like to have to live in reconditeness under constant fear of discovery, and coping with the intimacy that his father never regretted any of his barbaric doings.The primary purpose behind analyzing the stories of the children of Nazi war criminals is to determine where historians draw the line between understanding and acceptance. To accomplish this, Riordan references 2 fictionalized accounts of these father-son relationships in order to gain insight into how the children of war criminals deal with the knowledge of their fathers actions, and w hat action (or lack thereof) they take to attempt to atone for those crimes. Why, for example, did Rolf Mengele never free his father in to the authorities? The motives are varied, and in the end its up to the individual to weigh perceived loyalty to family, or loyalty to justice.Hinton, AL. (2002). extinguish Difference The Anthropology of Genocide. Berkeley University of California Press.This book seeks to examine the larger picture of genocide and what drives earth to single out and persecute specific groups of people within society. By studying various cases where genocide has occurred, such as the Holocaust, the author hopes to bring about an understanding of what causes these shameful events and how we might strive to preclude them in the future.Hinton states that genocide cannot occur without a basis of ideology that the perpetrators note justifies their behavior. Clearly this makes the Holocaust a prime example, and Hinton places great emphasis on the supposed anthropol ogical basis for many Nazi ideologies. Primarily amongst these are those regarding the Jews, who were defined by the Nazis as a lesser breed of humanity due to their stereotypical ethnic features, which differed in some ways from the angel Aryan.This anthropological view that Jews were sub-human played a major role in Nazi justification of their treatment of the Jews, from basic imprisonment to systematic killing and use in ghastly medical experiments like those carried out by Josef Mengele.Hinton also discusses the psychological blocks put in place by the Nazis themselves in order to avoid full comprehension of their misdeeds. This included the frequent use of obscure terms and code words that were used in place of clear descriptions of the atrocities carried out on prisoners by Mengele and other Nazis. This suggests that even ideology couldnt fully convince even the Nazis that what they were doing was right, and subconciously they corrected for this by salving the appearance of their crimes, at least in writing.Baumel, JT. (2000). You Said the Words You wanted Me to Hear But I Heard The Words You Couldnt Bring Yourself To severalise Womens First Person Accounts of the Holocaust. The Oral History Review. 27, 17-18.This article offers a unique view of some of Mengeles forgotten victims, the mothers of many of the children used in his experiments. Its wellhead documented that Mengele was highly interested in performing experiments on checks, and he took great care to sort twin children out from the rest of the Jews brought to Auschwitz by train. Twins were often yanked from their mothers grasps and the mothers sent off to their deaths never knowing what became of their children, while other times the mothers themselves were also involved in the experiments.This article examines both situations, with particular attention paid to the later group- Mengele was interested in what caused the twin phenomenon, and did tests on the Jewish mothers of twins in hopes of discovering the cause of twin births. former(a) mothers were forced to take part in the tests conducted on their own children, sometimes forced to inject their children with unknown substances, many of which had terrible effects. This had an obvious relentless psychological effect on these mothers, which Baumel explores in detail through first hand accounts.Other times, pregnant women were selected by Mengele for experimentation, such as one mother that had her newborn child taken from her and was forced to watch it crave to death as Mengele sought to determine how long a newborn could survive without its mother. Other pregnant women were experimented on, with injections and surgery. Through this and other terrible descriptions, Baumel illustrates not only the horrors of Mengeles experimentation, but also the terrible effect it had on the women they involved.