Monday, December 17, 2018

'RTL Implementation of MP3 Decoder IP Core\r'

'RTL IMPLEMENTATION OF MP3 DECODER IP meat\r\nAbstraction\r\nThe intent of this survey is to look into the effectivity of the MP3 decrypting protrude in computer computer ironw atomic number 18 comparison to the more popular softwargon point of intersection design. Nowadays, the MP3 consign set up is the more or little popular criterion for speech sound infatuation, physical exercised in play rump device much(prenominal) as audio participants and fluid phones. While MP3 decryption is one of the indispensable dower in multimedia form, nigh of the decryption design are software- ground, peculiarly because of the design of the system, which is easier compared to the computer ironware contribution. However, the encase design has superiorer clock, thereof higher government agency ingestion. This happens because of the design itself ; it has more iteration in the computer programming algorithm. There are trade union movements that combine both computer computer computer hardware and megabucks design in the MP3 decrypting creative activity, just the standalone hardware rational belongings ( IP ) lens karyon is still non good explored.\r\nThis paper will record a brief position on the basicss of the under winning, any(prenominal) bit good as the needed internal in initialiseions needed in charming on the attempt. every(prenominal) in berth informations commited in the watch are every gathered from diaries, books and the on military campaign along beginning available. The speciate of this projection is to belt along the designated IP nucleus and implemented in translate Transfer Level ( RTL ) manner, in which it easy essence utilizing the hardware descriptive lingual communication ( alpha-lipoprotein ) as the footing linguistic communication for the design.Table OF CONTENTSChapterTitlePageDedication2Recognitions3Abstraction4Table OF CONTENTS5List OF FIGURES71.0Introduction81.1Undertaking Background81.2Aim91.3Problem State ment91.4Scope of the Undertaking102.0Literature Review112.1Related Studies and anterior Work112.2Introduction to the MP3 Decoding Core132.2.1Synchroscope142.2.2Huffman Decoding152.2.3Requantiser162.2.4Reordering172.2.5Antialiasing182.2.6Inverse change Discrete romaine lettuce change ( IMDCT )192.2.7Synthesis Polyphase Filterbank203.0Research Methodology223.1Introduction223.2Ocular Representation of Research Methodology223.2.1Altera DE2 Board243.2.2Altera Quartus II253.2.3NIOS II25List OF FIGURESFIGURE NO.TitlePage2.1The MP3 bitstream format192.2The three part of absolute frequency line202.3The reordering procedure ( the darker coloring clobber represents higher frequencys )222.4The antialias andterfly232.5Types of window sequences in a subband252.6The IMDCT function extend273.1The undertaking civilize flow3.2The Altera DE2 board ( beginning: hypertext rapture protocol: //www.terasic.com.tw/ )293.3The Quartus II work bench environment303.4The NIOS II work bench environme nt31Chapter 1\r\nIntroductionUndertaking BackgroundMPEG-1/2 audio layer-3 ( MP3 ) is a most popular format for playback of high quality compressed sound. During the late old ages the industriousness of MP3 sound codec has exploded. Typically MP3 deposits are played back utilizing big money ( CPU or DSP ) , but recent t shut carry outencies wee-wee since informant the outgrowth of portable device, such as peregrine phones and MP3 participants. While DSP computer architecture is the most efficient for mental testingning MP3 participant, the challenges of FPGA transaction of MP3 decrypting are less understood.\r\nField Programmable Gate Array, except known as FPGA, is one type of incorporate circuit that is consumer-programmable, therefore it is called â€Å"field programmable” . This incorporate circuit uses hardware descriptive linguistic communication ( HDL ) to configure. Nowadays, FPGA has since advanced into a high degree of capability during the past decennary. It has since end upure the major HP in different types of action, since it base be employed as standalone System on Chip ( SoC ) or powerful gas pedals in multi-chip system.\r\nThe mark of the undertaking is to implement the MP3 decrypting nucleus by using the FPGA belongingss. While utilizing the bing tract codification to run the decoder in incase, efforts has been done to run the decoder in hardware, which will go the chief expression in this undertaking. Then, comparing the public presentation of these 2 methods will in like manner be the focal demo of the undertaking.AimThe aim of this undertakings are:To platform the MP3 decoder hardware based and can be implemented in portable based designTo mensuration the efficiency of the hardware based decipherer comparison to the common software based deciphererProblem StatementMost of the MP3 decryption designs are of in package. However, the hardware outcomeance of the decryption design has since interpreted the popul arity today. Therefore, some(prenominal) efforts befuddle been taken to draw and quarter the to the full hardware architecture of the decryption nucleus. This paper will prize the efficiency of the hardware decipherer as per package decipherer and to look into the advantages of both methods.Scope of the UndertakingThe range of the undertaking includes combination of several elements such as hardware, package and electronic parts. Below are the Scopess for the undertaking.Uses Verilog HDL linguistic communication as its chief footing for programmingExplore the application of Verilog utilizing Altera DE2 BoardInclude package programming such as C and C++Implement the application ( partial ) utilizing downloaded package for package execution ( Quartus II 9.1, Nios II 9.1 )Chapter 2\r\nLITERATURE REVIEW\r\nIn 1988, Hiroshi Yasuda ( Nippon Telegraph and think ) and Leonardo Chiariglione had initiated the working group Traveling Pictures Experts congregation ( MPEG ) to put the crit erions for audio and video compaction and contagion. The group, organize by internationalistic Organisation for Standardisation ( ISO ) and International Electrotechnical Commission ( IEC ) , has since developed into an organisation joined by members from assorted industries, universities and research establishments. One of the criterions that break created is the MPEG-1 horizontal surface 3, or good known as MP3. MP3 is the archetype format used for digital audio compaction, in which the design have 12:1 compaction ratio, from 1.4Mbps 128kbps bitrate for compact phonograph record ( Cadmium ) music.Related Studies and front WorkIt is known that MP3 decrypting procedure is a hard procedure, but several research workers and industrialist have attempted to plan the decipherer for this specific format. For case, Faltmanet Al.( 2003 ) have stated that the aim of MP3 decrypting in portable and stand-alone participants have gained in popularity. In the study, Faltmanet Al.( 2003 ) b esides stated the resultance in the public presentation of these hardware MP3 decrypting based on the clock rhythms and power use. It besides includes an effort to to make an MP3 decipherer in hardware, by utilizing Xilinx FPGA board. Thuonget Al.( 2005 ) have proposed the architecture of the MP3 decryption nucleus, in which the subcores of the architecture can be separately designed, coded and tested easy. However, the design of the nucleus is coded utilizing VHDL, the honest-to-goodness version of RTL linguistic communication.\r\nKo and Nicolici ( 2007 ) have tested the execution of the nucleus utilizing Altera DE2 board and Xilinx multimedia board. It besides has consequences including the figure of logic elements, reversals, memories and multipliers involved. Bhargav and Yang ( 2008 ) have introduced the use of Linux-run interface on the decryption nucleus. Their research has besides undecided the possibilities of animating the popular piece of consumer engineering utilizin g bing hardware available in the lab. Still, the design utilizes both hardware and package constituent in their design architecture. It has fewer general lags due to system clock and debugging procedure.\r\nSinghet Al.( 2008 ) have proposed that the affect of hand-held participants and multimedia in nomadic phone have raised a demand for a dedicated hardware to decrypt the file formats with low power ingestion and faster acceleration. Papakonstantinouet Al.( 2008 ) have researched instance survey on the execution of travel point math in decipherer execution to accomplish existent clip and faster decrypting procedure. In the instance survey, the writers introduce floating-point ( FP ) unit in their architecture to measure the operation velocity ; therefore engagement it the FP execution of MP3 decryption.\r\nIn the latest research by Moslehpouret Al.( 2013 ) , the undertaking uses NIOS II system, which is a hazard of package device, to read files and produces end product from th e decrypting procedure. By utilizing secure digital ( SD ) card as input devices, the system uses Altera DE2 board but synthesize different file format: moving ridge files, or.wav extension files. until now so, the exposure of the study have shown that running the decipherer is possible, peculiarly because of package characteristics use Altera SOPC builder in Altera Quartus 9.1 environment, in which the platform is largely used in third instruction degree.\r\nSome of the old work did even make the architectural design of MP3 decipherer, utilizing a VLSI cell-based effort. Tsaiet Al.( 2004 ) have proposed the specific architectural construction of MP3 decipherer in which it achieves a high through with(predicate)put with a decrease memory demand and hardware complexness. Mean piece of music, Kalpanaet Al.( 2012 ) have tried to implement the algorithm on the decreased complaint set computer experience ( RISC ) based ARM processor, which is far more advanced, proficient wised.\r \n all in all of the old work did hold its important characteristics in edifice MP3 decryption nucleus, either in hardware or package. However, the execution of MP3 decrypting IP nucleus, which uses Verilog HDL as its hardware linguistic communication, as implementing it to the full hardware based is non good discovered. Therefore, the focal point is the study is to undertake the design of MP3 decrypting nucleus, on the surface at least.Introduction to the MP3 Decoding CoreHarmonizing to Kalpanaet Al.( 2012 ) , all MP3 files are dual-lane into fragments called frames. apiece frames shops 1152 samples, enduring for 26ms, which the frame rate is about 38 frame per second ( Federal Protective assist ) . The prototypical measure to decrypt MP3 file format is by happening the start of the frame, which is called synchronism procedure, or else called initial reading.SynchroscopeBefore decryption, the start of the frame must be found. If the frame is interrupted, we can non happen the ex act come to the fore of the following frame ( Thuonget Al., 2007 ) . The construction of the frame consists of 5 parts ; heading, cyclic redundancy cheque ( CRC ) , side information, chief informations and accessory informations.HeadingCRCSide InformationMain informationsAncillary Data\r\n mannikin 2.1The MP3 bitstream format\r\nThe inside informations about the frame heading is as follows:Frame HeaderIt is a 32-bit long and has description of the frame, unneurotic with the synchronism word to separate the get pop portion of the bitstreamCRCUse to look into if there is any transmittal mistake for the most sensitive informations. The CRC will merely exists when the protection spot in the heading is set.Side InformationIncludes the of import information needed to decrypt the chief information. This depends on the channel manner. For individual channel, 136 spots are allocated, while for double channel, 256 spot allocated ( this is tantamount to 17 bytes in individual channel, 32 by tes in dual-channel )Main DataThe chief informations portion consists of the frames that includes scalefactors, Huffman coded spots and accessory informationsAncillary DataThis information can musical accompaniment user- define information. This frame country can keep facultative informations such as vocal name or song information.Huffman DecodingThis subdivision contains one of the most of import undertaking in MP3 decryption. The undertaking of Huffman decrypting is to transform and procedure the information into scalefactors and symbols stand foring the 576 original absolute frequency lines for from all(prenominal) one granule. These frequence line is divided into three splitter ;Big- set,Count1andRzero.\r\n\r\nBig- placesCount1Rzero\r\n\r\n chassis 2.2The three parts of frequence line\r\nDetailss on the Huffman codification divider are as follows:Big-valueRepresents the lowest frequence lines and are coded with the highest preciseness, scaled from values between -15 to 15 . When the decipherer finds the value 15, it assumes that the higher preciseness is needed. This can be done by utilizing the value 15 as an flight codification, so reads additional spots from the imput watercourse. The figure specified in the Huffman tabular array are called linbits.Count1Represent the higher frequence lines ; non invite the higher preciseness scaled value. Ranging from -1 to 1.RzeroRepresent the highest frequence lines, and non portion of the bitstream. It contains the the frequence lines that are removed by the encoder. These values are filled with nothing by the decipherer.RequantiserThe symbols generated from Huffman decrypting is so reconstructed into the original frequence line by utilizing the scalefactors provided in the side information of the frame. The low frequence scalefactor set contains less values than the high frequence.\r\nThe descaling equating for both short blocks and long blocks are defined as\r\nShort blocks:\r\n\r\nLong blocks:\r\n\r\nThe denoted scalefactorsscalefactor_sandscalefactor_lused by requantiser are provided by Huffman decipherer. Parametersglobal_gain,subblock_gainandpreflagcan be found in the frames provided by the Synchroniser block. The notaiondefines end product from the Requantser block, whileis the Huffman decoded value at indexI.ReorderingThis block merely has one undertaking: it reorders the frequence lines within a granule. When the short block is decoded, a short window will be used. The end product is so sorted into subbands, so on frequences and at last by Windowss to increase the efficiency of Huffman coding.\r\n\r\nFigure 2.3The reordering procedure ( the darker coloring fabric represents higher frequences )AntialiasingAntialiasing is the procedure where its map is to cut down the inevitable assumed name effects because of the use of non-ideal bandpass filtering. The alias Reconstruction is based on the butterfly computation, dwelling of eight butterfly computation for each subband.\r\n\r\ nFigure 2.4The antialias butterflyInverse modify Discrete Cosine TransformInverse Modified Discrete Cosine Transform, known as IMDCT, manifold clip samples from the frequence lines, together with synthesis polyphase filterbank. The clip samples can be obtained from the frequence lines by utilizing the undermentioned equation.\r\n\r\nThe IMDCT operation flow begins by taking 18 input frequence lines and generates 36 polyphase filter subband samples. The samples so multiplied with with a 36-point window before passed into following decryption procedure. Windowing is the procedure of multiplying and overlapping add-on operation of IMDCT’s end product with the sine window coefficient. Based on the length of each window, four types of block is used ; they arestart,halt,shortandlong. The ratiocination of block type is based on the abbreviation of the psychoacoustic theoretical account.\r\n\r\nFigure 2.5Types of window sequences in a subband\r\nHowever, bring awaying 36 sample s from 18 input representation that there are merely 18 samples are alone, therefore the IMDCT method uses a 50 % convergence. In this instance, the 36 end product samples is so divided into 2 groups, low group and high group, which has 18 samples each. The overlapping procedure is so carried out by adding values from the higher group, old frame with the deject group, matching frame. Then, the frequence inversion is so taken topographic point to accomplish right point difference. This was done by multiplying every uneven subband with ( -1 ) .\r\n\r\nFigure 2.6The IMDCT operation flowSynthesis Polyphase FilterbankThis block is the last measure in decrypting procedure. It converts all 32 subbands to bring forth 32 Pulse Code Modulation ( PCM ) samples at a clip The filterbank exploits aliasing and windowing to travel the subbands back into their frequence sphere. This block is divided into two parts ; Modified Discrete Cosine Transform ( MDCT ) and windowing.Modified Discrete Cosin e TransformEach clip frame of the subband samples are ordered so that the first 32 values are the first sub-sample from each subband, and so forth. The MDCT processes 32 values at a clip by utilizing the equation:\r\n\r\nwhere\r\nThe end point end product values,is so stored in the barrel gearshift.WindowingThe windowing procedure tallies by multiplying the valuesfrom the barrel shifter with the window map. This window map is specified in the ISO criterion. The PCM generated are so computed for each loop. The MDCT and windowing together run 18 times for each granule, bring forthing 576 PCM samples ( 27ms at 44.1kHz ) .\r\nChapter 3\r\nRESEARCH METHODOLOGYIntroductionThis chapter discusses the well planned attack taken during the project’s timeline to guarantee that the undertaking is good organized and run expeditiously. The methodological abridgment is represented into a flow chart for easiness of apprehension.Ocular Representation of Research MethodologyThe designate wor k flow for the undertaking is shown below, in Figure 3.1.\r\n\r\nFigure 3.1The undertaking work flow\r\nThe undertaking begins by researching any old plants related to the MP3 decryption and FPGA-based architecture execution. withal that, several resources on hardware descriptive linguistic communication and package programming tutorial have besides looked at. The procedure involved in constructing the nucleus is studied and briefly elaborated to give wastefulness cognition in order to carry through the research. The importance and intent of the undertaking is besides discussed in the first phase.\r\nThe hardware used for proving and implementing the undertaking is Altera DE2 educational Development Board.\r\n\r\nFigure 3.2The Altera DE2 board ( beginning: hypertext transport protocol: //www.terasic.com.tw/ )Altera DE2 BoardThe Altera DE2 board provides everything needed to develop more advanced digital designs utilizing Altera Cyclone II device, with utilizing application packa ge Altera Quartus II. This development board is the first measure to present and larn basic FPGA devices easy, since it is accessible in the lab. It is suitable for a broad scope of exercisings in classs on digital logic and computing machine organisation, from elemental undertakings that illustrate cardinal constructs to progress designs.Altera Quartus II\r\nFigure 3.3The Quartus II work bench environment\r\nAltera Quartus II is a package tool produced by Altera for analysis and synthesis of HDL designs, which enables the user to roll up their designs, execute clocking analysis, analyze RTL diagrams, imitate a design ‘s reaction and configure the mark device with the coder.NIOS II\r\nFigure 3.4The NIOS II work bench environment\r\nNios II is the most widely used soft processor in the FPGA industry. Nios II incorporates many sweetenings over the original predecessor, Nios architecture, doing it more suitable for a wider scope of embedded computer science applications, from DSP to system-control. The development for Nios II consists of two separate stairss: hardware coevals, and package creative activity.\r\n'

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